BIOL 404-Exam 4-GI 19
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Where is the pancreas anatomically?
Under the stomach above the intestine
What percent of the pancreas is Endocrine?
What is the area of endocrine cells called in the pancreas?
Islets of Langerhans
What type of cells are found in the islets of Langerhans?
What hormones are secreted by the islets of Langerhans?
- Pancreatic polypeptide
Most of the hormones of the pancreas play what general role?
Regulation of metabolism
The exocrine portion of the pancreas has what purpose?
Secretes digestive enzymes
The exocrine portion of the pancreas is lined by cells that secrete what?
Bicarbonate rich fluid
Small ducts of the pancreas converge to form what?
The pancreatic duct
The pancreatic duct converges with what other duct?
common bile duct
Where does the pancreatic juices enter the GI?
Enzymes are secreted by what part of the pancreas?
What enzymes are secreted by the exocrine portion of the pancreas?
- trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and carboxypeptidase
- ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease
What is the purpose of bicarbonate, secreted by pancreatic duct cells?
Neutralizes HCl in the small intestine
What Neutralizes HCl in the small intestine?
bicarbonate produced by the pancreas
Optimal pH for pancreatic enzyme activity is what?
Why is a higher pH optimal for the small intestine?
Protects mucosa from acid-pepsin damage
What pancreatic enzymes are secreted as zymogens?
- Lipase cofactor colipase
Where are pancreatic zymogens activated at?
The lumen of the small inetstine
What activates trypsinogen?
- membrane bound enterokinase
- Clips of a portion of trypsinogen
What activity does trypsin have on trypsinogen?
It can activate trypsinogen to trypsin
What does membrane bound enterokinase do?
Activate trypsinogen to trypsin
What stimulates pancreatic exocrine secretions?
- Cephalic phase stimulation
- Gastric phase stimulation
- Intestinal phase stimulation
By what mechanism do cephalic/gastric phase stimuli activate pancreatic exocrine secretion?
Parasympathetic cholinergic activity
Stimulation from what phase of digestion has the strongest effect on pancreatic exocrine secretion?
What intetinal hormone controls pancreatic enzyme secretions?
CKK = Cholecystokinin
What hormone controls pancreatic bicarbonate secretion?
Where is the liver located anatomically?
Above the stomach on the Right side of the body
The liver secrete what?
Bile is secreted into small bile ducts called what?
Bile canalaculi converge in the liver to produce what?
The hepatic duct
What two ducts converge to form the common bile duct?
The hepatic duct and the cystic duct
What is the sphincter of Oddi?
Smooth muscle rings that surrounds the common bile duct at the point of entry in the duodenum
What is the name for the smooth muscle rings that surrounds the common bile duct at the point of entry in the duodenum?
Sphincter of Oddi
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