BIOL 404-Exam 4-GI 19

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kyleannkelsey
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217331
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BIOL 404-Exam 4-GI 19
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2013-05-02 18:20:20
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BIOL 404 Exam GI 19
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BIOL 404-Exam 4-GI 19
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  1. Where is the pancreas anatomically?
    Under the stomach above the intestine
  2. What percent of the pancreas is Endocrine?
    2%
  3. What is the area of endocrine cells called in the pancreas?
    Islets of Langerhans
  4. What type of cells are found in the islets of Langerhans?
    Endocrine
  5. What hormones are secreted by the islets of Langerhans?
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon
    • Somatostatin
    • Pancreatic polypeptide
  6. Most of the hormones of the pancreas play what general role?
    Regulation of metabolism
  7. The exocrine portion of the pancreas has what purpose?
    Secretes digestive enzymes
  8. The exocrine portion of the pancreas is lined by cells that secrete what?
    Bicarbonate rich fluid
  9. Small ducts of the pancreas converge to form what?
    The pancreatic duct
  10. The pancreatic duct converges with what other duct?
    common bile duct
  11. Where does the pancreatic juices enter the GI?
    The duodenum
  12. Enzymes are secreted by what part of the pancreas?
    Excocrine cells
  13. What enzymes are secreted by the exocrine portion of the pancreas?
    • Amylase
    • Lipase
    • trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and carboxypeptidase
    • ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease
  14. What is the purpose of bicarbonate, secreted by pancreatic duct cells?
    Neutralizes HCl in the small intestine
  15. What Neutralizes HCl in the small intestine?
    bicarbonate produced by the pancreas
  16. Optimal pH for pancreatic enzyme activity is what?
    Neutral
  17. Why is a higher pH optimal for the small intestine?
    Protects mucosa from acid-pepsin damage
  18. What pancreatic enzymes are secreted as zymogens?
    • Trypsin
    • Chymotrypsin
    • Elastase
    • Carboxypeptidase
    • Lipase cofactor colipase
  19. Where are pancreatic zymogens activated at?
    The lumen of the small inetstine
  20. What activates trypsinogen?
    • membrane bound enterokinase
    • Clips of a portion of trypsinogen
  21. What activity does trypsin have on trypsinogen?
    It can activate trypsinogen to trypsin
  22. What does membrane bound enterokinase do?
    Activate trypsinogen to trypsin
  23. What stimulates pancreatic exocrine secretions?
    • Cephalic phase stimulation
    • Gastric phase stimulation
    • Intestinal phase stimulation
  24. By what mechanism do cephalic/gastric phase stimuli activate pancreatic exocrine secretion?
    Parasympathetic cholinergic activity
  25. Stimulation from what phase of digestion has the strongest effect on pancreatic exocrine secretion?
    Intestinal phase
  26. What intetinal hormone controls pancreatic enzyme secretions?
    CKK = Cholecystokinin
  27. What hormone controls pancreatic bicarbonate secretion?
    Secretin
  28. Where is the liver located anatomically?
    Above the stomach on the Right side of the body
  29. The liver secrete what?
    Bile
  30. Bile is secreted into small bile ducts called what?
    Bile canaliculi
  31. Bile canalaculi converge in the liver to produce what?
    The hepatic duct
  32. What two ducts converge to form the common bile duct?
    The hepatic duct and the cystic duct
  33. What is the sphincter of Oddi?
    Smooth muscle rings that surrounds the common bile duct at the point of entry in the duodenum
  34. What is the name for the smooth muscle rings that surrounds the common bile duct at the point of entry in the duodenum?
    Sphincter of Oddi

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