Middle Adulthood

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Middle Adulthood
2013-05-02 21:11:46
human development

final exam
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  1. visual acuity
    the ability to discern fine spatial detail in both close andy distant objects
  2. presbycusis
    loss of the ability to hear sounds of high frequency
  3. glaucoma
    a condition in which pressure in the fluid of the eye increases, either because the fluid cannot drain properly or because too much fluid is produced
  4. presbyopia
    a nearly universal change in eyesight during middle adulthood that results in some loss of near vision 
  5. crystallized intelligence
    the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem-solving situations
  6. fluid intelligence
    reflects information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory
  7. expertise 
    is the acquisition of skill or knowledge in a particular area
  8. selective optimization 
    the process by which people concentrate on particular skill areas to compensate for losses in other areas
  9. short term memory
    15 to 20 seconds
  10. long term memory
    stored on a relatively permanent basis
  11. schemas
    organized bodies of info stored in memory
  12. mnemonic strategies
    formal strategies for organizing material in ways that make it mor likely to be remembered. 

    • Get Organized
    • Pay attention
    • Use the encoding specifity phenomenon
    • Visualize
    • Rehearse
  13. Mid-life crisis
    a stage of uncertainty and indecision brought about by the realization that life is finite
  14. life events model 
    the approach to personality development that is based on the timing of particular events in an adults life rather than on age per se
  15. normative-crisis models
    the approach to personality developmentt that is based on fairly universal stages tied to a sequence of age-related crises
  16. The "Big Five" major clusters of personality traits/characterisitcs
    • Neuroticism- the degree to which a person is moody, anxious, and self critical
    • Extroversion- how outgoing or shy a person is
    • Openness, a persons level of curiosity and interests in new experiences
    • Agreeableness, how easy going and helpful a person tends to be
    • Conscientiousness, a persons tendencies to be organized and responsible
  17. Sandwhich generation 
    couples who in middle adulthood musts fulfill the needs of both their children and their aging parents
  18. cycle of violence hypothesis
    the theory that abuse and neglect of children leads them to be predisposed to abusiveness as adults
  19. burnout
    a situation that occurs when workers experience dissatisfaction, disillusionment, frustration, and weariness from the job
  20. Age level when most people become aware of changes in their bodies regarding the aging process
  21. Age when the "settling" process begins with regards to height
  22. Ways to reduce the risk of osteoporosis 
    calcium and exercise
  23. Changes in a person's height and weight during middle adulthood also result in a decline in what area
  24. Age at which most people lose 10% of their max strength
  25. Age at which most people begin experiencing hearing loss
  26. Age of climacteric for males and females and the length
    • Women- 45, 15-20 years
    • Men- 50s
  27. Symptoms of menopause 
    • Irregular menstrual periods 
    • hormone changes
    • hot flashes
    • headaches
    • dizzinesss
    • heart palpitations
    • aching joints
  28. The "silent killer"
  29. Consequences of stress
    • increased blood pressure
    • decreased immune activity
    • increased hormonal activity
    • harmful behaviors
    • decreased compliance with medical advice, care, or seeing medical advice 
  30. Type A behavior pattern
    • competitiveness 
    • impatience
    • frustration and hostitility
    • multi tasking
  31. Type B behavior pattern
    • noncompetiveness
    • patience 
    • lack of aggression
  32. Age at which, according to Schaie, inductive reasoning, spatial orientation, perceptual speed, and verbal memory being to gradually decline
    • 25
    • verbal- 40
  33. Memory skills that show decline in middle age
    long term memory
  34. Ravenna Helson's theory on personality development
  35. Eriksons stage during middle adulthood
    generativity-versus-stagnation stage- the stage during middle adulthood in which people consider their contributions to family and society 
  36. Vaillant's theory
    keeping the meaning versus rigidity, adults seek to extract the meaning from their lives and to keep the meaning by developing an acceptance of the strengths and weakness of others. 
  37. Levinson's theory
    midlife transition, a time of questioning 
  38. Personality traits that decline in middle adulthood and those that do not decline
    Decline: neuroticism, extraversion, openness

    no decline- agreeableness, concientiousness
  39. Phases of marital satisfaction
    • child-free
    • infant children
    • preschool children
    • schoolage children
    • adolescent children
    • young adults
    • empty nest
    • retirement
  40. Number of people who divorce that will remarry again usually within 2 to 5 years
  41. Those with the best opportunity to be remarried and those with the least opportunity 
    • Best- men, women under 25
    • worst- women over 40 
  42. Effects of divorce on genders
    men feel lonely, increase in physical and mental health problems 
  43. Contributing factors to why a higher percentage of second marriages end in divorce
    • more stress such as blending families
    • less committed to relationships
    • personality and emotional characteristics that don't make them easy to live with 
  44. Culture least likely to view taking care of elderly as outside the norm
  45. Types of grandparents
    • Companionate- more relaxed, supportive, visit, call frequently
    • Involved- actively involved, hold clear expectations about the ways their grandchildren should behave
    • Remote- detached, distant, little interest
  46. Culture most likely to be involved grandparents
    African american
  47. Percentage of marriages in the US in which some form of violence occurs
  48. Percentage of wives who physically abuse their husbands
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