counseling theories final 641, part 2
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What is the view of human nature in ACT Mindfulness?
- Suffering is a universal human condition
- motivation of human beings is to find meaning and live a productive life
- Functional contextualism- a person can't be separated form their surroundings or parts
- It's holistic
- the role of the context is central in understanding events
- the criterion for truth is pragmatic
6 critical processes to Human Functioning- Acceptance (without changing thoughts), Being Present, cognitive defusion (thoughts are only thoughts), self as perspective (context to where life events unfold), values, committed action (being true to values)
What are the goals in therapy in ACT Mindfulness?
- Help client behave in ways that are consistent w/ their values even when uncomfortable
- ACT therapist will try to help clients change the functions of experiences (mainly thoughts) not their form
What is the role of assessment in ACT Mindfulness?
- Formal assessments can be helpful but cautions the use of standard inventories
- Specific ACT measures can be found in the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire
What is the role of the counselor in ACT Mindfulness?
- Counselor is warm and genuine, egalitarian
- believes that client can change
- accept his own experience so they can accept the client
What is the role of the client in ACT Mindfulness?
Client must believe he can change
What is the nature of the relationship in ACT Mindfulness?
Egalitarian, warm genuine
What techniques are associated with ACT Mindfulness?
- Metaphor- quicksand and chessboard
- The Willingness dial- two scales metaphor- illustrates the futility of trying to control negative personal experience
- Mindfulness techniques- meditation and body awareness
- Cognitive Defusion Techniques- helping clients separate their thoughts from themselves
- values work- helping clients clarify their values
What happens in ACT Mindfulness?
- Accept, Chose, and Take Action
- Moving from FEAR( fusion, evaluation, avoidance, and reason giving) to ACT
What is the view of human nature in DBT Mindfulness?
- childhood experience is critical for individual development
- Dialectics- reality is fluid and is composed of opposing forces, polarities, the synthesis of which creates a new set of opposing forces
- Emotional Regulation- the ability to pay attention to, understand, and mange emotional experience
What is are the goals in DBT Mindfulness?
- To teach clients to
- 1. modulate intense emotions and reduce or eliminate maladaptive behaviors associated with these
- 2. trust in self, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
What is the role of assessment in DBT Mindfulness?
- Thorough assessment, including a diagnostic interview that is used to obtain a detailed history and client's previous counseling experiences (structured client interview)
- Identify primary and secondary targets
- Primary- life or therapy threatening behaviors (suicide, self-harming)
- Secondary- emotional regulation, problem solving, self-validation, life skills
What is the role of the counselor in DBT Mindfulness?
- Assume clients are doing the best that can
- Clients can't fail, only the therapy or therapist can
- (often needs support b/c of the clients they work with)
What is the role of the client in DBT Mindfulness?
- responsible for solving problem
- work hard to do so
What is the nature of the relationship in DBT Mindfulness?
- Treatment lasts 1 year, including individual therapy and skills training groups
- Validation is the key to creating a strong connection
- therapist is a swim coach and client plunges in
What techniques are associated in DBT Mindfulness?
- Core Mindfulness Skills (what and how), what skills involve learning to observe, describe, and participate in experience, how skills are adopting a stance of not judging, focusing on one thing at a time, and doing what's effect
- Distress tolerance skills- distracting, self-soothing, improving the moment, and thinking of pros and cons
- emotional regulation skills
What happens in DBT Mindfulness?
Four treatment modes- individual, group skills training, phone consult, therapist consult groups
Four stages- address life threatening behaviors, help client experience distressing emotions, help client to make greater connection w/ world and increase self-respect, and address any leftover feelings of incompleteness
Four categories of treatment strategies- core, dialectical, stylistic, and case management
What is the evaluation of Mindfulness?
Strengths and Weaknesses
- Strengths- both DBT and ACT have good research support
- both are seen as culturally friendly for a wide variety of clients due to the emphasis on client values
- Weaknesses- DBT- too narrow, focus on clients with Borderline PD, but can be useful w/ binge eating and bulimia
- ACT originally developed to address anxiety, but has grown beyond that
What is the view of human nature in Reality?
- Social constructivist theory
- people chose their own behaviors, "driver's seat"
- motivated to maximize pleasure and minimize pain
- basic needs are- survival, love and belonging, power, freedom, and fun
What are the goals of Reality therapy?
- help client make better choices that are helpful to them and that don't interfere or hurt others
- Client learns to take responsibility for choices and make more effective choices that better satisfy their needs
What is the role of assessment in Reality?
- No formal assessment
- DSM is the "big book of unhappiness"
What is the role of the counselor in Reality?
- questions and challenges client to evaluate their own behavior
- directive, can resemble doctor/patient or teacher/student
- counselor is expert on choice theory and human behavior
What is the role of the client in Reality Therapy?
accept responsibility, must determine what is right for self
What is the nature of the relationship in Reality?
- centered in present and based in reality
- focused on behavior and thinking
- ABCDE=Always be Courteous, Determined and Enthusiastic
- short term- only 12 sessions depending on the creation time of a good relationship between client and counselor
What happens in Reality?
- 8 steps
- 1. involvement
- 2. focus on present behavior
- 3. value judgment
- 4. planning responsible behavior
- 5. commitment to the plan
- 6. accept no excuses
- 7. do not punish
- 8. never give up
What techniques are associated w/ Reality?
- doing the unexpected
- self disclosure
- physical activity and meditation
- allowing or imposing consequences
Evaluation of Reality
strengths and weaknesses
No a lot of precision and testability or Empirical validity
Strengths- outcome research of counseling do exist and are supportive of effectiveness
Weaknesses- ignores social influences on behavior
Central Constructs of Reality
- Basic needs
- Quality world- the world of wants, a set of mental images of need fulfilling things or people
- total behavior- used to accentuate the multidimensional world of human behavior.
- behavior has 4 components- acting, thinking, feeling, and physiology
- choice theory- we choose everything we do including the misery we feel.
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