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what breed is known for maxillary prognathism?
what is campylorrhinus?
wry face (difficult to nurse)
how should umbilical hernias be managed?
usually close on their own but measure regularly
what is the most common angular limb deformity in foals?
what is expected neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio?
what is expected ALP? GGT?
- ALP: hi while growing
- GGT: not incr. from colostrum like cows
- GGT elevates w/GI ulcers
what is expected creatinine in foals?
foal 1.5x greater at birth then decreases to normal within 48 hours
what is expected USG in foals?
hyposthenuria from milk diet
what is the epinichium?
what should foal do when born?
- sit sternal in few minutes
- suckle w/in 30 minutes
- stand w/in hour
- nurse mare w/in 2 hours
- *failure to stand w/in 3 hours = ABnormal*
Brood mares are vaccinated routinely throughout gestation for what?
- EHV-1 (7, 9, 10 months)
does foal get antibodies from mare in utero?
no, completely separate
what breeds are associated with poor Ab w/in colostrum?
arab > QH > TB/SB
what effect can fescue toxicity have on milk?
T or F: a good suckle does not ensure adequate IgG?
true, apparently healthy mare may not have good colostrum
how much colostrum per kg of body wt should be ingested?
1g/BW (usu. 1-2 L quality colostrum)
what should specific gravity of colostrum be? how is this measured?
- 1.060 = 30g/1L IgG
what is best way to administer colostrum if can't get it from mare?
what is the average gestation length?
what are signs the mare is near parturition?
- perineum relaxes
- mammary gland engorges
- waxing of teats
- milk electrolytes
- fetal heart rate (60-90)
which milk electrolyte peaks reliably 72 hours before parturition?
what are signs of stage 1 parturition? what is stage 2?
- 1: restless
- 2: ruptured chorioallantois until foal delivered
Stage 3 is delivery of placenta. What should you do if placenta is hanging but not fully detached?
gather it up/tie at hock level so it will come out on its own
what type of placenta?
diffuse epithelial microcotyledonary
what is the "red velvet" micro villi part of placenta?
chorion - attached to mare
which part of placenta should be presented at parturition?
amnion (fetal side)
what is most common cause of placentitis?
- ascending infection from urogenital tract - bacterial
- (hematogenous possible
What is normal combined thickness of uterus and placenta?
- should be less than 10mm
- (placentitis when >12mm)
how can maternal progestins be used to determine placentitis?
progesterone drops dramatically 1-2 days prior to parturition but if drops early, can indication impending abortion/placentitis
how is placentitis treated?
- systemic Abs - broad spectrum
- NSAIDs (red. prostaglandins)
- progesterone (regumate)
If placentitis therapy not working and abortion seems inevitable, why would you give steroids?
hopefully accelerate fetal development
which is more vigorous at birth: foal born early to placentitis or foal born as hypoxic event?
more vigorous with placentitis
what is mare at risk for if retains placenta past 3 hours?
how is retained placenta treated?
- uterine lavage
- weigh placenta
- anti-inflammatories for endotoxemia
- cryotherapy for laminitis
what are some viral causes of abortion? parasites?
- EHV1 (late), EVA (any time)
- babesia/piraplasmosis, neorickettsia
what is a common, noninfectious cause of abortion? how is this treated?
- twinning (esp. TB)
- pinch one before day 16
when does uterine torsion occur? cranial or caudal to cervix?
- mid-late gestation
- cranial to cervix
how is uterine torsion diagnosed? treated?
- rectal exam
- -flank laparotomy standing if <10 mo
- -ventral celiotomy
- -roll the mare
what are some complications associated with uterine torsion?
- rupture, ischemia
- GI complications
- failure to return to reproductive soundness
when does large colon volvulus occur related to parturition?
- 30days prior
- or 60 days after
what is recurrence rate of large colon volvulus in the brood mare?What is prognosis for reproductive soundness following large colon volvulus?
- 15% (even after colopexy, colonic resection)
which vessel is most associated with peri-parturient hemorrhage?
- middle uterine artery rupture
- -if bleed into broad ligament = hematoma
- -bleed into peritoneum = hemoabdomen
how does mare present w/peri-parturient hemorrhage?
- lethargic/colic (maybe severe)
- tachycardia, pale mm, poor jugular fill
- may die acutely
how is peri-parturient hemorrhage treated?
- quiet environment/may need AceP
- controlled hypotension (60mmHg)
- prothrombotics = aminocaproic acid
- antifibrinolytics like formalin
- *leave foal w/mare*
what is likelihood for reproductive soundness after PPH?
only 49% sound
what is the difference between position, presentation, and posture?
- position: foal direction (feet first)
- presentation: foal related to mare dorsum (dorso-sacral)
- posture: foal position (contracted tendons, twisted neck)
what can you give to facilitate vaginal exam of dystocia?
- xylazine (fast acting; fewer SE on foal than detomedine)
- buscapan (para-lytic)
- epidural quickly (lidocaine)
what is controlled vaginal delivery?
GA then lift hind limbs of mare - retropulsion of foal - correct position - deliver