EqMed F, Neuro II

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EqMed F, Neuro II
2013-05-02 21:44:19
EqMed Neuro II

EqMed F, Neuro II
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  1. Does WNV vaccine prevent disease?
    Prevenile - Chimera does but others don't, they do significantly decrease viremia and reduce mortality
  2. what should you tell your client about potential for human to be infected with WNV if their horse is infected?
    human can't get it from horse but if horse infected, virus present in environment/amplifier host which could infect human
  3. which equine herpes virus causes myeloencephalopathy?
    • EHV-1
    • (also causes abortion and rhinopneumonitis)
  4. what are clinical signs for EHV-1?
    • *symmetrical* rear limb ataxia
    • pyrexia
    • perineal hypoalgesia, bladder paresis, fecal retention
    • occasional Cr.N deficits
  5. How does EHV cause myeloencephalopathy?
    targets endothelial cells in CSF - vasculitis - thrombosis causes hemorrhage in white matter
  6. how is neuro form of EHV diagnosed?
    • CS + Hx (abortion, fever, respiratory dz)
    • viral isolation from nasal swab or buffy coat
    • CSF antibody titer, PCR
  7. what will CSF show for EHV neuro form?
    • xanthrochromia, high protein
    • low cells
  8. what supplement can help reduce neuro signs and improves T cell function?
    zinc supplements
  9. what is prognosis for EHV?
    • may be partial, some complete
    • may take days to months (have to manage fecal/urine retention)
    • worse prognosis if recumbent
  10. Is there a vaccine for EHV neuro form?
    no but vaccine may decrease viremia of EHV in general
  11. what does moldy corn poisoning cause?
  12. what is etiology of moldy corn poisoning?
    • fungus (Fusarium moniliforme) on corn during growth (not storage)
    • need repeated exposure - interferes w/sphingolipids
  13. what is result of moldy corn poisoning?
    • coagulative necrosis of white matter
    • liver damage
  14. what are 4 diseases that affect the spinal cord or peripheral nerves?
    • botulism (type B most common)
    • tetanus
    • cervical stenotic myelopathy
    • temporohyoid osteoarthropathy
  15. what are the 3 syndromes seen with clostridium botulinum?
    • forage poisoning
    • toxico-infectious (shaker foal)
    • wound botulism
  16. what clinical signs are seen with forage poisoning after ingesting preformed toxin?
    • dysphagia, muscle tremor,
    • ileus, bladder atony
    • death from respiratory paralysis
  17. how do foals 1-3 months old acquire the toxico-infectious form?
    ingest C. botulinum - GIT acidity in foals not low enough to inhibit growth - toxins form
  18. what are signs in shaker foals?
    • dysphagia, weak, tire easily
    • poor eyelid and tail tone
  19. what happens when wound gets infected w/C. botulinum and toxins form there?
    flaccid tetraparesis ("botox")
  20. Isolation of C. botulinum is merely suggestive so what are some other tests to help you?
    • tongue stress test
    • mouse assay
    • find spores in feces
  21. how is botulism treated?
    • *Na or K penicillin + antiserum/antitoxin*
    • NOT metronidazole, procain penicillin, aminoglycosides, or tetracycline
  22. Horse has extensor rigidity, erect tail and ears, and protruding third eyelid. Likely diagnosis? How could this have been prevented?
    • clostridium tetani
    • vaccinate w toxoid
  23. what are goals of tetanus treatement? what meds are used?
    • neutralize toxin
    • debride wound
    • *give Metronidazole* + sedatives/mm relax
  24. what are mortality rates with tetanus?
  25. how many doses of tetanus toxoid are given the first time? how often is it boostered?
    • 3 doses between 12 wks -12 months
    • revx every 1-5 yrs or if get a wound
  26. what is the toxoid v. antitoxin? which is passive v. active immunity?
    • toxoid: inactivated toxoid from C. tetani - active
    • antitoxin: serum w/antibodies to tetanus toxin - passive
  27. what is difference in age for static vs. dynamic cervical stenosis? which gender is more represented?
    • dynamic 6-18mo
    • static 2-4yrs
    • males
  28. what are some dietary factors that may contribute to cervical stenosis?
    • decr. Cu
    • incr. Zn,
    • excess CHO - endocrine response (hi insulin/low T4)
  29. what are clinical signs of cervical stenosis?
    • spinal ataxia, dysmetria
    • symmetrical weakness
    • rear usu. 1-2 grades worse than front
  30. what is cervical vertebral instability?
    • dynamic compression of C3-5 during flexion/extension
    • developmental orthopedic disease
  31. what is cervical vertebral malformation?
    static compression of C5-7 due to stenotic canal
  32. what is evaluated in plane radiographs?
    • sagittal ratio (cervical canal diameter)
    • articular process DJD, look for subluxation
  33. what is treatment for cervical stenotic myelopathy?
    • minimize injury and inflammation, stall confine
    • "paced" diet
    • arthrocentesis
    • surgery
  34. what are two surgical options?
    • basket surgery
    • ventral stabilization of malarticulation
  35. what neurologic disease follows inner/middle ear or inflammation of stylohyoid which then fuses to tetrous temporal bone?
    temporohyoid osteoarthropathy
  36. which cranial nerves are impinged upon with this osseous proliferation?
    7 (facial) and 8 (vestibulocochlear)
  37. what are clinical signs of THO?
    • acute onset vestibular disease or facial n. paralysis
    • head shaking
    • painful palpation of ear
  38. what are medical treatment options for THO?
    • SMZ-TMP
    • NSAIDs
    • (2/3rds return to athletic use)
  39. what is surgical option for THO?
    • stylohyoid osteotomy
    • ceratohyoid ostectomy
    • tarrsoraphy (for facial nerve damage - KCS/can't blink)