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Does WNV vaccine prevent disease?
Prevenile - Chimera does but others don't, they do significantly decrease viremia and reduce mortality
what should you tell your client about potential for human to be infected with WNV if their horse is infected?
human can't get it from horse but if horse infected, virus present in environment/amplifier host which could infect human
which equine herpes virus causes myeloencephalopathy?
- (also causes abortion and rhinopneumonitis)
what are clinical signs for EHV-1?
- *symmetrical* rear limb ataxia
- perineal hypoalgesia, bladder paresis, fecal retention
- occasional Cr.N deficits
How does EHV cause myeloencephalopathy?
targets endothelial cells in CSF - vasculitis - thrombosis causes hemorrhage in white matter
how is neuro form of EHV diagnosed?
- CS + Hx (abortion, fever, respiratory dz)
- viral isolation from nasal swab or buffy coat
- CSF antibody titer, PCR
what will CSF show for EHV neuro form?
- xanthrochromia, high protein
- low cells
what supplement can help reduce neuro signs and improves T cell function?
what is prognosis for EHV?
- may be partial, some complete
- may take days to months (have to manage fecal/urine retention)
- worse prognosis if recumbent
Is there a vaccine for EHV neuro form?
no but vaccine may decrease viremia of EHV in general
what does moldy corn poisoning cause?
what is etiology of moldy corn poisoning?
- fungus (Fusarium moniliforme) on corn during growth (not storage)
- need repeated exposure - interferes w/sphingolipids
what is result of moldy corn poisoning?
- coagulative necrosis of white matter
- liver damage
what are 4 diseases that affect the spinal cord or peripheral nerves?
- botulism (type B most common)
- cervical stenotic myelopathy
- temporohyoid osteoarthropathy
what are the 3 syndromes seen with clostridium botulinum?
- forage poisoning
- toxico-infectious (shaker foal)
- wound botulism
what clinical signs are seen with forage poisoning after ingesting preformed toxin?
- dysphagia, muscle tremor,
- ileus, bladder atony
- death from respiratory paralysis
how do foals 1-3 months old acquire the toxico-infectious form?
ingest C. botulinum - GIT acidity in foals not low enough to inhibit growth - toxins form
what are signs in shaker foals?
- dysphagia, weak, tire easily
- poor eyelid and tail tone
what happens when wound gets infected w/C. botulinum and toxins form there?
flaccid tetraparesis ("botox")
Isolation of C. botulinum is merely suggestive so what are some other tests to help you?
- tongue stress test
- mouse assay
- find spores in feces
how is botulism treated?
- *Na or K penicillin + antiserum/antitoxin*
- NOT metronidazole, procain penicillin, aminoglycosides, or tetracycline
Horse has extensor rigidity, erect tail and ears, and protruding third eyelid. Likely diagnosis? How could this have been prevented?
- clostridium tetani
- vaccinate w toxoid
what are goals of tetanus treatement? what meds are used?
- neutralize toxin
- debride wound
- *give Metronidazole* + sedatives/mm relax
what are mortality rates with tetanus?
how many doses of tetanus toxoid are given the first time? how often is it boostered?
- 3 doses between 12 wks -12 months
- revx every 1-5 yrs or if get a wound
what is the toxoid v. antitoxin? which is passive v. active immunity?
- toxoid: inactivated toxoid from C. tetani - active
- antitoxin: serum w/antibodies to tetanus toxin - passive
what is difference in age for static vs. dynamic cervical stenosis? which gender is more represented?
- dynamic 6-18mo
- static 2-4yrs
what are some dietary factors that may contribute to cervical stenosis?
- decr. Cu
- incr. Zn,
- excess CHO - endocrine response (hi insulin/low T4)
what are clinical signs of cervical stenosis?
- spinal ataxia, dysmetria
- symmetrical weakness
- rear usu. 1-2 grades worse than front
what is cervical vertebral instability?
- dynamic compression of C3-5 during flexion/extension
- developmental orthopedic disease
what is cervical vertebral malformation?
static compression of C5-7 due to stenotic canal
what is evaluated in plane radiographs?
- sagittal ratio (cervical canal diameter)
- articular process DJD, look for subluxation
what is treatment for cervical stenotic myelopathy?
- minimize injury and inflammation, stall confine
- "paced" diet
what are two surgical options?
- basket surgery
- ventral stabilization of malarticulation
what neurologic disease follows inner/middle ear or inflammation of stylohyoid which then fuses to tetrous temporal bone?
which cranial nerves are impinged upon with this osseous proliferation?
7 (facial) and 8 (vestibulocochlear)
what are clinical signs of THO?
- acute onset vestibular disease or facial n. paralysis
- head shaking
- painful palpation of ear
what are medical treatment options for THO?
- (2/3rds return to athletic use)
what is surgical option for THO?
- stylohyoid osteotomy
- ceratohyoid ostectomy
- tarrsoraphy (for facial nerve damage - KCS/can't blink)