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are beef or dairy breeds more likely to be cross-bred?
is AI utilized more in beef or dairy breeds?
how much does the average beef calf weigh at birth? what is average weaning weight?
what is average size of beef herd in US?
38 (part time enterprise for most)
bos indicus or taurus: heat tolerant, tolerate parasites better and poor quality forage better?
what are the english bos taurus breeds? how do they compare to continental breeds?
- -english mature earlier, smaller, higher fertility rates
what are the 5 most commonly registered beef breeds?
which breed is naturally polled, from scotland, and known for easy calving?
angus (red or black)
which english breed is prone to developing cancer eye or vaginal prolapse?
what is charlois (from france) commonly used for?
what is heterosis?
hybrid vigor - beef breeds commonly cross bred to select for desired characteristics
when are calves sold in cow/calf operation?
at weaning = 7 mos = 450-500lbs
what is seed stock?
cattle raised specifically for breeding
what is stocker/backgrounding operation?
- purchase weaned calves and precondition + wt gain before sending to feedlot
- (purchase in fall, sell in spring)
what is difference between feeder and fed cattle?
- feeder getting fat
- fed are ready for slaughter
how much is a potload?
50,000lbs worth of animals in a truck
when is she first bred? how old is beef cow at first calving?
15 months for first breeding so 24 mos at calving
what % of mature wt should beef cow be at weaning? at mating? at calving?
- wean at 7mo: 45%
- mate at 15mo: 65%
- calve at 24mo: 85%
what are feeding requirements during phase 1 of gestation? phase 2?
- 1: barely above maintenance (fetus not hi demand)
- 2: last trimest = most fetal growth = incr. e* requirement
what are feeding requirements in phase 3 and 4?
- 3:calving to breeding/milk for calf = 100% greater than phase 1
- 4: breed to wean = lower requirements/calf eating more forage
what is the "scour vaccine"
what is #1 killer of calves?
hypothermia or hypoglycemia
what are cows vaccinated against at end of calving season?
IBR, BVD, PI3, BRSV, lepto
which fly transmits moraxella bovis? how is it controlled?
- face fly - pink eye
- dust bags, ear tags, oilers
is face fly a blood sucking insect?
no, feeds on animal secretions
which fly is commonly found on back, shoulders, belly? is this a blood sucking insect?
horn fly - blood sucking
how much time do horn flies spend on host?
most of the time spent eating on host - females leave to lay eggs in poop
which blood sucking fly is found on legs? how much time do they spend on host?
- stable fly
- eat on cow then go in shade
With heel fly, where does hypoderma bovis hang out v. hypoderma lineatum?
- bovis: spinal cord
- lineatum: esophagus
- both migrate to dorsum in spring
how are heel flies controlled?
ivermectin (cut off date Oct 1 to avoid reaction)
what is gadding?
cow freaks out when heel flies start to emerge - run w/tail up - stampede
what are some pasture season diseases?
- grass tetany
- parasites (hemonchus, ostertagia)
- pink eye
- foot rot if rainy; and reproductive diseases
Which reproductive disease can cause abortions, stillbirths, or persistently infected calves? What fetal malformation is also associated?
- bovine viral diarrhea
- cerebellar hypoplasia
Which reproductive disease can cause midterm abortions or infectious pustular vulvovaginitis?
what is the host adapted form of lepto? which form leads to fever and hemolysis in calves?
- host adapted = hardjo
- calves = pomona (non host adapted)
what venereal disease leads to early abortions? are cows or bulls carriers?
- vibrio (campylobacter)
- cows are carriers
which reproductive disease is reportable and zoonotic? what disease does it cause in humans?
- brucellosis (Bang's Disease)
- humans = Undulant Fever
when are calves vaccinated for brucella? How are they marked to know it was given?
- calves between 4-12 months
- tattoo after giving, ear tag RIGHT ear
Which reproductive disease causes early abortion and pyometra (potato soup)? are bulls or cows culled?
- tritrichomonas - protozoal venereal transmission
- bulls culled - he spreads it and there's no tx
in late gestation what mineral is boosted in the cows?
what are two neuro diseases of herd health concern?
what is a replacement dairy farm?
- contract with farm to raise calves from home to farm
- -maintains genetics and biosecurity
what type of housing involves cows tied into stall, gutter behind to clean away manure, and fed/watered in stall?
what is a milking parlor?
cows brought over and milked from person in a pit below
what is loose housing?
- large, open barns
- dry cows and heifers
what age is dairy calf weaned off milk? bred? has first calf?
how long after calving is dairy calf bred? how long is gestation?
- 40-80 days later
- gestation: 285 days
from lowest to highest milk production, what order are the five common dairy breeds?
- jersey(reverse order for fat in milk)
how are dairy cows monitored for hepatic lipidosis/ketosis?
monitor NEFA levels (if too high, add rations to diet)
how is milk fever prevented in dairy cows?
add anionic salts to start mobilizing ionized Ca and low Ca diet during late dry period
what disease is treated with benign neglect and vaccines are useless? what life stage cow gets this?
- warts (papilloma virus)
how is ringworm in heifers treated?
no good treatment but will clear up when back in sun in spring
weaning should happen once calf is eating 2lbs of started for 3 days so that what is sufficiently stimulated first?
- papilla in rumen
- (then roughage started to stimulate cud formation)