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what are 3 common ocular diseases?
- blocked nasolacrimal duct
What bot species effect nasal passages?
what should be on rule out list if you see head shaking?
- ear infection
What should you suspect if there's swelling on mandible, wt loss, and draining tract? what is treatment?
- tooth root abscess
- surgery better than Abs alone
Owner describes wt loss and regurgitation. Rads reveal pneumonia. what is diagnosis and what do you tell owner about prognosis?
- megaesophagus (with aspiration pneumonia)
- poor prognosis long term
The owner gets upset at this news and doubts your diagnosis. What can you do to prove it?
Another owner describes her llama as being distressed and having trouble swallowing. Upon PE you also notice he is bloated. What is diagnosis and your recommended therapy?
- stabilize pt and pass stomach tube
Your next owner says their llama was acutely ataxic and grinding its teeth. Now its recumbent. And oh yea, they just switched it to this new grain and he loves it! Diagnosis?
You run bloodwork and get a sample from C1 to determine your therapy for the grain overload. What are you expecting to find on the bloodwork and pH of the C1 sample?
- metabolic acidosis, hypoCl, dehydration
- pH <5.5 in C1
How do you treat Grain Overload?
- empty C1, transfaunate
- thiamine, Abs,
- fluids, bicarb (to correct dehydration/acidosis)
Next owner calls to say ever since she got this new llama shipped to her farm he has refused to eat. Now he is recumbent w/legs out to the side and he hasn't pooped in days. Diagnosis?
ulcer in C3 (from stress and prolonged anorexia)
How are ulcers treated?
- remove stress
- butorphanol for pain
- pepto bismol, MgOxide
New baby cria stood and seemed normal after birth but is now straining and refusing to eat. Diagnosis and treatment?
meconium impaction - enema (sometimes surgery)
what part of gestation does uterine torsion occur?
mid to late
OMG my llama is rolling around on the ground! Doc, is he colicing? what other signs do you ask if they have seen?
- could be colic or just a dust bath
- if kicking abdomen then in severe pain
- cush - stand- cush-stand or lay w/legs out to side
What do you expect vital parameters to be on this llama if he is in fact colicy?
- they could be normal!
- can have normal pulse/HR in face of pain
- *but its NOT normal to be anorexic*
what are common problems radiographs will help detect?
- sand impaction (usu need sx)
- spiral colon impaction
- gas in intestines
where is abdominocentesis performed?
what are 5 common parasites in camelids?
- **tx: fenbendazole
what is baermann test done for?
look for lung worms and liver flukes
what is a large coccidia that cause hypoproteinemia? how is it treated?
- E mac
- early: amprolium/albon
- later: ponazuril
what is juvenile llama immunodeficiency syndrome?
- failure to thrive
- lymph node biopsy shows lymphoid depletion
- lack of B cells
what is vaccine response test for JLIDS?
give CDT vaccine - wait 10d to allow immune response - draw serum/give booster - 2wks later draw serum again - determine if immune response was mounted, if none, JLIDS +
what is a causative agent of extravascular hemolysis found on edge of RBCs? how do they present?
- mycoplasma hemollamae
- often asymptomatic - stress can cause recrudescence