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what are sheep checked for at end of breeding season (october)? how is it treated?
- oestrus ovis - ivermectin
- (sneezing, stomping feet, mucoid nasal discharge)
how long is breeding season/when should rams be removed from ewe pens?
50-60 days (3+ heat cycles)
when is pregnancy check ultrasound done? what should be done is ewe has multiples? what is done if they didnt get pregnant?
- at 40-70 days
- separate ewes with multiples
- cull open ewes
Between oct-november, ewes may abort so what should be boostered? what is considered natural rate of abortion?
- enzootic abortion of ewes
- vibrio (campylobacter)
does vibriosis cause early or late term abortions? is this a venereal disease in sheep?
- late (2-4 wk prior to lambing)
- NOT venereal (fecal/oral transmission)
what are clinical signs/diagnostic features of vibriosis?
- fever, diarrhea, vaginal discharge
- may be asymptomatic
- thick, brown placenta
- *potbellied fetuses w/donut like foci in liver*
how is vibriosis in sheep treated? will ewes develop immunity?
- oral chlortetracycline in feed 60d prior to and up until lambing
- -ewes that abort develop immunity
is toxoplasmosis a venereal disease in sheep? will ewes develop immunity?
- NOT venereal (protozoa shed by cats)
- if abort, develop immunity
what is the effect of toxoplasma gondii on pregnant ewes?
- early embryonic death if infected up to 40days of gestation
- day 40-120 infected - abortion/mummy
- past 120, may have no effect or weak babies
what are clinical signs/diagnostic features of toxoplasma gondii?
- *mummified feti, some normal lambs*
- white foci of necrosis on cotyledons
how is toxoplasma gondii prevented?
- prevent feline fecal contamination
- neuter cats
- feed ionophores
what is causative agent of enzootic abortion in ewes? when during gestation is abortion?
- chlamydophila abortus
- late term abortions; still/weak lambs
what are expected clinical signs in ewes infected with EAE?
- ewes show no signs (may abort at next pregnancy)
- if lamb survives, may have pneumonia
how is EAE transmitted? will ewe have immunity?
- ingest feces/urogenital fluids
- *venereally* transmitted by carrier ram
- yes, immunity post infection
what are diagnostic findings/clinical signs with EAE?
- serosangiunous vaginal discharge
- *recent arthritis, conjunctivitis*
- no lesions on fetus
- coagulative necrosis of cotyledons
is there a vaccine for EAE?
yes killed bacterin, but not for goats
how is EAE treated?
tetracycline injection then chlortetracycline added to feed 60 prior to lambing until lamb
In december when lambing begins, what does low quality hay predispose ewes to?
what is crutching?
removing wool from udder and perineum to avoid e.coli infection with lambing
what % fat and protein should lamb milk replacer be?
how much colostrum do sheep need? what is best alternative species?
- 10-15% BWT (about 120 ml/kg)
- goat colostrum better than cow
what is major cause of perinatal mortality in sheep?
hypothermia and starvation
what are some complications associated with castration?
- missed testicles
where is correct place to remove sheep's tail?
- between caudal vertebrae
- want tail long enough to reach vulva
- *use tetanus prophylaxis and fly spray*
if lambs are born in january, when should creep feeding start? what should Ca: P ratio be?
- march - supplemental grain to nursing lambs
how old are lambs for first vaccines? what are common first vaccines?
- 4-6 wks
- C. perfringens C, D and tetanus toxoid
- consider intranasal IBR/PI3
how old are most lambs when weaned?
- 8-10 weeks then most go to feedlot (April)
- should be eating ~2 lbs dry feed per lamb per day