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when are weaned lambs ready for feed lot?
about 70-110 lbs
what is disorder lambs can get after traveling?
transport tetany (from not eating...low Mg)
what is involved in preconditioning for sheep?
- vx: C. perfringens C/D and tetanus
- tx ectoparasites (lice and sheep keds)
- metaphylaxis Abs
what is risk of switching over to full feed too quickly?
- rumen acidosis
- overeating disease
what is fed on arrival? how is it changed after 3-4 days?
- arrive: quality hay, up to 25% alfalfa
- later: 85% silage + 15% concentrate + coccidiostat
By about 4 weeks, what should sheep be eating?
- up to 65-86% grain/concentrate
- (the rest is silage)
how much wt are lambs expected to gain at feed lot?
0.5lb /gain /day
what is risk of high concentrate diets?
- chronic laminitis
- rumen acidosis - liver abscesses
- chronic bloat
what are causes of rectal prolapse?
- tail docked too short
How can you try to prevent uroliths?
- proper Ca:P ratio
- encourage water consumption
- long stemmed forage for chewing
- acidify urine w/ammonium chloride
what is wool break?
response to stress, fever, or systemic illness - loose entire fleece
what is club lamb fungus?
- trichophyton verrucosum
- -commonly dt frequent bathing, removes lanolin
how is ringworm managed?
- ISOLATE! (transmissible)
- careful w/bleach; iodine stains wool
- athlete's foot meds = $$$
when are lice a problem? how are they treated?
- winter when in close contact/contaminated bedding
- treat topically w/pyrethrin every two weeks until all eggs hatched/killed
- (oral ivermectin for blood suckers)
which lice can cause anemia?
sucking lice - linognathus
what are clinical signs of lice?
- intense pruritus
- wool loss; wt loss
- anemia (sucking lice)
what is sheep ked? where on the animal is it found?
- melophagus ovinus
- blood sucking, skin irritation on neck, shoulders, ventral abdomen
how are shed keds treated?
insecticide tx after shearing
what is the only form of mange left in US sheep?
where on the sheep is demodex found?
- nose, eyes, ear tips,
- coronary bands
what does sheep with mange look like?
pustules and small abscesses w/secondary skin infection
how is demodex treated?
weekly dipping w/O.5% *amitraz* + Abs
why is goat behavior described as alleomimetic?
move together, some will venture/curious
what are some reasons for castrating goats?
- eliminate buck flavor in milk
- prevent unwanted pregnancy
- limit odor from pet males
Why are angora goats left intact?
- horns need testosterone to grow
- protect against predators w/ horns
what age should horn buds best burned off by?
within first 14 days w/ lidocaine block
what is max safe dose of lidocaine in small ruminants? what about cows?
- small ruminants: 7mg/kg
- cow: 10mg/kg
is epinephrine added to the lidocaine for debudding?
no, vasoconstriction can lead to tissue sloughing
where are lidcoaine injections placed in the goat?
- 1: btwn lateral canthus of eye and lateral horn base
- 2: middle of globe at edge of bony orbit
why is dehorning adult goat not safe?
- requires GA
- can cause fractures/thin skull
- minimal skin available for closure
- must bandage until healed
how much do goats weigh when enter feed lot? how much do they weigh when slaughtered?
- enter 30-50 lbs
- slaughter at 110-140 lbs
how does feedlot ration for goats compare to that of sheep?
similar but goats get less grain/more forage
what is transgenic goat milk?
contains some human genes so their milk has more lysozyme in it - antimicrobial properties....hopefully
what are some dairy breeds of goat?
- french alpine
- toggenburg (oldest/smallest)
- la mancha (minimal ear pinna)
which goat breed has highest milk production?
what are the fibers used from the goat?
- cashmere (undercoat of many breeds)
- mohair from angora breed
what are some differences between cow and goat milk?
- goat has smaller milk globules, lacks agglutinin, naturally homogenized
- lower amount of alpha S1 casein
- (not truly hypoallergenic)
Cows can be milked year round, but what season are goats milked? when is peak milk production?
- peak 4-6wks post kidding
what is normal SCC in goat milk? what is predominant cell?
- higher bc aprocrine secretion
- 270,000- 200,000 (up to 1mill legally allowed)
- neutrophils (macrophage in cow)
what is predominant cell in sheep milk? what is normal SCC?
- 750,000 (same as cow)