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Are spontaneous/excessive bleeding disorders more common in dogs or cats? what about thrombosis?
- dogs > cats
- (thrombosis rare in both)
what is the most common spontaneous bleeding disorder in dogs?
- (immune mediated is most common)
is vonWillebrand's disease a common cause of spontaneous bleeding?
vWD is common but rarely causes spontaneous bleeding
which factors are in the intrinsic pathway?
12, 11, 9, 8
what is the difference between primary and secondary hemostatic defects?
- 1: platelet or vascular disorder
- 2: clotting factors deficiency
what are signs of primary bleeding disorder?
- petechia, ecchymoses
- bleeding from mucous membranes - melena, hematuria, epistaxis
- prolonged bleeding after venipuncture
- (hematomas rare)
what is the most common cause of primary bleeding disorder?
- (<25,000 to see spontaneous bleed)
Platelet dysfunction or thrombocytopathy is less common but what are some causes?
- hereditary (vWD)
- monoclonal gammopathy
- vaccines, drugs (NSAIDs, Abs, phenothiazines)
what are signs of secondary bleeding disorder?
- deep hematomas
- deep bleeding; pools of blood
what are most common causes of secondary bleeding disorder?
rodenticide ingestion or liver disease
Is DIC a problem with primary or secondary hemostasis?
combination of both
what diagnostic tests evaluate for primary disorder?
- blood smear for plt estimation
- BMBT (2-3minutes is normal)
- platelet count
- platelet functional assay
what diagnostic tests evaluate for secondary bleeding disorders?
- ACT (activated coagulation time for intrinsic and extrinsic pathways)
what are some conditions that would cause prolonged ACT test?
- liver disease
what are some conditions that would lead to prolonged OSPT? Is this testing intrinsic or extrinsic pathway?
- +/- liver disease
what are some conditions that would lead to prolonged ASPT? is this testing intrinsic or extrinsic pathway?
- intrinsic (12,11,9,8)
- liver disease
what are D dimers and Fibrin degradation products tests used to evaluate?
evaluates for systemic fibrinolysis as seen with DIC
which clotting factors are affected by vitamin K deficiency?
what is most common cause of thrombocytopenia in cats?
- decreased production (as with FeLV)
- -rare in dogs
what is most common cause of thrombocytopenia in dogs?
- increased destruction (ITP)
- -rare in cats
besides incr. destruction and decr. production, what are two other causes of thrombocytopenia?
- incr. consumption - DIC, HSA, vasculitis
- sequestered - spleen (or liver)
what are primary causes of ITP?
- systemic lupus erythematosis
what are some causes of secondary ITP?
- infections (ehrlichia, HW, rickettsia)
- -lepto, leshmaniasis,
- -cytoxazoon in cats
- drugs and modified live vx
what is signalment for ITP?
- any dog/cat at any age
- females more common
- 2-7yrs old (middle aged)
what breeds are associated with ITP?
- standard poodles
- cocker spaniel, springer spaniel