SA Med F, Hemo I

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HLW
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217405
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SA Med F, Hemo I
Updated:
2013-05-02 22:00:17
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SA Med Hemo
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SA Med F, Hemo I
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  1. Are spontaneous/excessive bleeding disorders more common in dogs or cats? what about thrombosis?
    • dogs > cats
    • (thrombosis rare in both)
  2. what is the most common spontaneous bleeding disorder in dogs?
    • thrombocytopenia
    • (immune mediated is most common)
  3. is vonWillebrand's disease a common cause of spontaneous bleeding?
    vWD is common but rarely causes spontaneous bleeding
  4. which factors are in the intrinsic pathway?
    12, 11, 9, 8
  5. what is the difference between primary and secondary hemostatic defects?
    • 1: platelet or vascular disorder
    • 2: clotting factors deficiency
  6. what are signs of primary bleeding disorder?
    • petechia, ecchymoses
    • bleeding from mucous membranes - melena, hematuria, epistaxis
    • prolonged bleeding after venipuncture
    • (hematomas rare)
  7. what is the most common cause of primary bleeding disorder?
    • thrombocytopenia
    • (<25,000 to see spontaneous bleed)
  8. Platelet dysfunction or thrombocytopathy is less common but what are some causes?
    • uremia
    • hereditary (vWD)
    • monoclonal gammopathy
    • vaccines, drugs (NSAIDs, Abs, phenothiazines)
  9. what are signs of secondary bleeding disorder?
    • deep hematomas
    • deep bleeding; pools of blood
    • hemoabdomen/hemothorax
  10. what are most common causes of secondary bleeding disorder?
    rodenticide ingestion or liver disease
  11. Is DIC a problem with primary or secondary hemostasis?
    combination of both
  12. what diagnostic tests evaluate for primary disorder?
    • blood smear for plt estimation
    • BMBT (2-3minutes is normal)
    • platelet count
    • platelet functional assay
  13. what diagnostic tests evaluate for secondary bleeding disorders?
    • OSPT/PT
    • APTT/PTT
    • ACT (activated coagulation time for intrinsic and extrinsic pathways)
  14. what are some conditions that would cause prolonged ACT test?
    • hemophilia
    • rodenticide
    • DIC
    • liver disease
  15. what are some conditions that would lead to prolonged OSPT? Is this testing intrinsic or extrinsic pathway?
    • extrinsic
    • rodenticide
    • DIC
    • +/- liver disease
  16. what are some conditions that would lead to prolonged ASPT? is this testing intrinsic or extrinsic pathway?
    • intrinsic (12,11,9,8)
    • hemophilia
    • rodenticide
    • DIC
    • liver disease
  17. what are D dimers and Fibrin degradation products tests used to evaluate?
    evaluates for systemic fibrinolysis as seen with DIC
  18. which clotting factors are affected by vitamin K deficiency?
    2, 7,9,10
  19. what is most common cause of thrombocytopenia in cats?
    • decreased production (as with FeLV)
    • -rare in dogs
  20. what is most common cause of thrombocytopenia in dogs?
    • increased destruction (ITP)
    • -rare in cats
  21. besides incr. destruction and decr. production, what are two other causes of thrombocytopenia?
    • incr. consumption - DIC, HSA, vasculitis
    • sequestered - spleen (or liver)
  22. what are primary causes of ITP?
    • idiopathic
    • systemic lupus erythematosis
  23. what are some causes of secondary ITP?
    • infections (ehrlichia, HW, rickettsia)
    • -lepto, leshmaniasis,
    • -cytoxazoon in cats
    • neoplasia
    • drugs and modified live vx
  24. what is signalment for ITP?
    • any dog/cat at any age
    • females more common
    • 2-7yrs old (middle aged)
  25. what breeds are associated with ITP?
    • standard poodles
    • cocker spaniel, springer spaniel
    • OESD
    • GSD

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