tufa rock in stream is derived from calcium bicarbonate to calcium carbonate, sedimentary form of calcium carbonate
calcium bicarbonate can travel and produce in warm shallow oceans?
carbonic acid is a weak acid?
carbonic acids form two kinds of salts?
carbonates and bicarbonates
volcano/sulfer dioxide produces
sulfuric acid rain
sulfer dioxide is a toxic gas, released by
volcanoes and cars emissions and cause acid rain.
plants can use phosphorous?
to stabilize phosphorus you must place in ?
phorsphurs once water evaporates can?
bust into flames...arsonists favor
when phosphorus burn it creates PO4 ion...called phosphate?
true...worth going to war over!!!
every dna molecule must have?
phosphate...can not have life without!
phosphate is a component of ?
dna, rna and atp... form cell membranes
Cells make Dna/rna to make?
in water you will find diatoms, shells made of glass?
oil comes from?
diatoms, NOT dinousars!
diatom's nucleus is full of Dna and oil?
diatoms create and produce
oxygen and are major group of algea, common photoplankton.
diatoms live in alkaline water...
PO4 type A is phosphate =
PO4 B type is =
insoluable organic (diatoms)
PO4 type C =
Insoluable organic (rock) does dissolve in sea water
PO4 type D are =
soluable organic (nuleotides) dead fish rots (biological molecules the form building blocks of nucleic acids (dna and rna) to carry packets of energy within cell
(biological molecules the form building blocks of nucleic acids (dna and rna) to carry packets of energy within cell
a small crustacean found in the sea and and nearly every fresh water habitat.
copepod, contain omega 3 fish oil...keep arteries clean and keep fat out of system.
feed catfish sardines to create omega 3 to create healthy like marine fish...
copepod are cows of the sea...dna food (b)
fish (b) dna type
bones (c) type calcium phosphate
acid water breaks down
alkaline water does not break down
Nucleotides (d) are building blocks for dna molecules...soluable orgainic..fall leaves stinky smell
If ph of 8 or higher, will never breakdown
bacteria breakdown and make type a
fishbones on bottom make type c PO4..insoluable organic
fox river has 250ppm of PO4
1lb of PO4 for every
million pound so rock
higher PO4 the better the
Red tide is caused by protozones in the water that give off waste material, causing fish arties to clog up and suffoecate fish?
if you step on fish bones from red tide can cause blood poisoning...
fish bones produce a lot of PO4...havest dust, when wet transforms into
phosphorus acid...causes pitting on car bumpers
triple super phosphate can be made soulable by adding phoforic acid?
phosphate bone meal has slow release and aborb through roots...acid rains dissolves slowly... and
root cap give off carbonic acid and PO4 dissolves...long term tulips.
triple super phostate...fast release...short term crop tomoatos
phosphate is important to make
flowers to create new cells!!!
new cell division
potassium also helps develope
root hairs to absorb water & minerals and collenchyma cells to make plants more rigid/stems stiff
Old roots can NOT absorb?
potassium comes from?
wood burning ashes
potassium chyloride is soluable
high potattisum will kill fish...stop muscles from working...
potassium chylorid is not good
a source for potassium is potassium permanganate...bright purple in color
nitrogen is most common element in the air?
nitrate makes chylorfil
if not chlyorfil no photosynthesis
true, no food
bacteria and roots of legumes =
nitrate acid is good for plants
false..will kill them
dust bowl created
for crop rotation 1yr should plant?
clover field legumes
plant what for 2nd year rotation?
corn...maximizes nitrogen back into soil
plant what for 3rd year crop rotation?
wheat, oat barely...short grain plants, require very little nitrogen...get from excess corn previous year
4 yr crop rotation plant...
replant clover again...now we plant alfalfa...
must have cows for crop rotation
true...must have cows urine to put nitrogen back into soil...
roots of clover=bacteria with make
nutrients and energy...cut frequently for meristamatic cells...
Plant legumes to make
Nitrate!!! clover/alfalpha is a legume
compressed ammonia (ice rink) put in ground with corn endless supply of nitrogen...don't need cows since already in ground
anhydrous ammonia is made by
arab oil companies
if plant runs out of nitrogen
top of leaves turn bright green and bottom leaves turn yellow and fall off...as chylorfil moves up stem.
when springs comes excess nitrogen in soil, what happens?
it gets in well water and can cause intestinal cancer and birth defects. when use anhydrous ammoina have more than plants can use. same can happen if over fertilze lawn, since nitrogen is main ingredient in lawn fertilizer. percolation sucks nitrogen downwards into well
ammonia nitrate make grass
ammonia nitrate is very soluable and cannot be removed from water?
true...it can be removed by plants, but NOT chemicals
can not have a cation exchange without clay?
buffer salt does NOT allow change?
true...limestone is a buffered salt...buffer requires weak acid or base
acid plants can not live in alkaline water
true...can't have minerals because perculation would wash them down into soil...
plants can not use hydrogen ions (metallic)
alkaline clay soil holds minerals with perculation they stay
anything less than a 7 is acidic...
anything greater than a 7 is a base
if you hava and acid of ph3 and a base of ph9 both are weak and =
if you have an OH =
base and comes apart in water
so in water naoh becomes...
na+ and oh-
in water koh becomes
k+ and oh-
when base goes into water...it separates into
ions....you can tell an ion...has a + or - next to them.
acid has an H next to it and in water it comes apart and
strong acids = ions that don't go back together...
weak acids...ions tend to reform
nitrate is soulable in
if the plant is limp...what is missing and why
lack of chylimia cells, potassium defincey
if plant is not flowering, why?
lack of phosphourus...makes pollen grain 2 nuclie inside every cell...smallest cell in plant.
nitrogen, phosphous, k pottasium
examples of NPK...
peters 20/20/20...completely soulable...$$$$$ expensive. 12/12/12 or 7/7/7 is less expensive and for bigger gardens. like coffee grounds
nitrogen is important for
phosphorous important for
potassium important for
leaves and root...discourages flowering...lawn fertilzer
8/16/16 for rose/tomato ferziler
rose super triple phospahte
first add 20/20/20, then phosphate a couple of weeks later
super triple phosphate is not water soluable?
too much fertizler will cause playmolysis?
true...use ion stick to determine amount
ammonia nitrate, super triple phosphate and kcl...potassium chylordide need all summer long?
for tomatos use
triple super nitrate
sunflower and sweet potatoes use
add milk or dolomite limestone to add calcium
0-0-50 potassium, put on roots, not leaves...
nitrate = fertilzer
Nitrite = food preservation
sodium nitrate...use on meats to preserve...brown sugar make ham pink...NACL make ham brown.
sulfer can't be used by plants
through SO4 plants absorb sulfate and get amino acids...
Plants need ALL kinds of ammino acids or will not survive
CaSO4...calcium sulfate = gypsum (acid base)
grainular form that you put on top when becomes wet...
becomes acid and dissolves self.
metals and salts
Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−. It consists of an oxygen and a hydrogen atom held together by a covalent bond, and carries a negative electric charge. It is an important but usually minor constituent of water. It functions as a base, a ligand, a nucleophile and a catalyst. The hydroxide ion forms salts, some of which dissociate in aqueous solution, liberating solvated hydroxide ions
Hydrogen plays a particularly important role in acid-base chemistry with many reactions exchanging protons between soluble molecules. In ionic compounds, it can take a negative charge (an anion known as a hydride and written as H−), or as a positively charged species H+. The latter cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds always occur as more complex species.
Ca = calcium, it's important for?
apical meristem..w/o plant dies and the middle lamella...holds stuff together with calcium pectate...firm stem
bedrock is not soluable
alkaline soil not soluable, need acid to make soluable
Ca++ = calcium chloride is
salt and soluable...used in cement...absorbs moisture from own atmosphere...will dissolve in own moisture.
calcium chloride...if sprinkle on weeds will kill?
true...plymolysis...a table spoon will dissolve 100%
Me Magnisium definnicy add
Epsom salts magnesium sulfate
In plants, magnesium is necessary for synthesis of chlorophyll and photosynthesis.
granite does not dissolve in water, it's an acid rock...
true, but alabaster does...
ferric iron is NOT soluable in water
fe+++ ferric hydroxide plummets to bottom of tank not making iron available to plants
east coast has acid water...do not use fish filter...plants will die to lack of iron?
white roots mean lack of
everything soluable in acid env.
peatmoss has not nutritional value?
true...just holds water
CO2 + H2O ⇌ H2CO3 =
Carbonic acid is what forms when carbon dioxide dissolves in water. It is a weak acid but will over time, dissolve many rocks, especially carbonates such as limestone
hydro carbate is not stable in water, outside plant absorbs and converts to calcium bicarbonate on inside...
10am co2 gone...plants use calcium bicarbonate rest of day
true...lots of food...
photosynis grow faster in water, true...not all oxygen used...makes more oxygen the plant can comsume
true...roots and leaves can use respiration
sugar and oxygen in water stay in plant
calcium stays on plants
if no hole in plant holder...used distilled, otherwise too many minerals will apeculate back up into plant causing it to die...
edta is a chelating agent
EDTA, or ethylenediaminetetraacetate, (−O2CH2)
iron is not soluable unless have acid water
if we eat salad we all have edta in blood
edta is water soluable and chemically bonds with iron...make leaves green
Chelated iron...add to alkaline soil
makes leaves and roots green
edta keeps iron soluble in alkaline enviornment
if plants lack iron they have white leaves on top
i.e of chelated iron...feti-lome liquid iron...place on leaves roots...make green
chemically bonded together ++ charges
Mg++ Magniusium makes
with mg++ veins green/yellow leaf has deficinency
mg++ defincey is derived from acid salt, can fix by
adding dolomite limestone or Epson salt...soluable
in Mg++So4 magnesium sulfate...human body
Mn Manganes...have to chemically analyze to determine what defincy is ...or lack of iron...to fix
just add peters 20/20/20
also to fix any magniesm difficency add Potassium permangate...purple solution
kills fungus, turns toes nails brown, cures sick fish...
in city water no iron or calcium in water...no mg in water...add K+ perange