Soil & Minerals

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  1. What water do plants use?
    Capillary matter like paper towel.
  2. Passage of water from high concentration through low concentration, thru semi permeable membrane
  3. An acid base indicator?
    Phenal Red
  4. What is acid rain & CO2 combined?
    Carbonic acid
  5. The direction of apercolation?
  6. 5 components of soil?
    • rock part
    • organic matter
    • soil solution
    • gas phase
    • living organisms
  7. Is Acid or Base contain hydrogen?
  8. Does Base or Acid contain hydroxide?
  9. Ca = Calcium what two things on plant does it help?
    1) apical meristem...without plant dies

    2) middle lamella...holds calcium pectate together, makes plant strong & vigorous.
  10. Is Alkaline soil soluable?
    no, need acid (rain water) to make soluable...calcium carbonate, now calcium bicarbonate.
  11. What would cause lack of chylemmica cells not to develop and make stems droopy?
    lack of calcium and/or lack of potassium...
  12. What can absorb moisture from own atmosphere and dissolve within own moisture?
    Ca++Cl - Calcium Chloride it's salty & completely soluable.
  13. what can you sprinkle on weeds to kill through plasmoloysis?
    calcium chloride dissolves 100%
  14. Is calcium carbonate Ca Co3 water soluable?
  15. Calcium Sulfate - Ca++SO4 are gypsum and soluable?
    yes...sulfate acids salts are soluable...
  16. Calcium Sulfate is used in making?
    casts and plaster paris
  17. Can milk be used as calcium for soil?
    yes, it has calcium and phosphate both
  18. If plants are droopy what can you add?
    potassium sulfate
  19. What iron is Fe0?
    metallic iron...bumper/nail
  20. What iron is Fe++?'s soulable in both acid and alkaline, colorless, stable in anaerobic environment, no air.
  21. What iron is Fe+++?
    Ferric...NOT soluable in alkaline env....aerorobic, rust color, plenty of oxygen
  22. What are the two iron ions found in plants?
    Fe++ & Fe+++
  23. Are ions available in and Acid env.?
  24. Are ions available in a alkaline env.
    no, unless anaerobic uses up oxygen and organic matter
  25. water soaked soil is ?
    anerobic, forcing air out of alkaline soil
  26. Water on top soaked, with no airspace is?
  27. aerobic soil has?
    air space and crumb structure, hydrogen or metallic ions.
  28. does chlorophyll contain iron?
  29. Do you need iron to make chylorphil?
  30. What color are a plants leaves if it has no iron present?
    the top leaves are white or yellow, while the bottom leaves are green.
  31. If plant has nitrogen difficency how can you tell...?
    top leaves are green and the bottom leaves are yellow or white.
  32. If plant has MG magnesium diffeincy add?
    Epson salts
  33. aerobic tank needs what kind of water?
    alkaline...ferric hydroxide...ferric iron
  34. anerobic plants need what type of iron?
  35. what does acid salt do?
    dissolves acids and salts...all salts dissolve in acid
  36. what does alkaline do...?
  37. what do you add to soil that will not change PH and will develop roots and chylemcmia cells?
    potassium sulfate
  38. Is everything soluable in acid env?
  39. does hot water contain gas?
  40. anerobic/ferris ions...will you see rust?
  41. with aerobic/oxygen env...will you see rust
  42. ferris ion and hydroperoxide produces what colors?
    gold to rust
  43. types of organic matter?
    bird, cow, mushroom, horse manure, peat moss, oak leaves, grass clippings, oak leaves, dry pig blood, hair clippings.
  44. Bird waste is best, contains uric acid...why good?
    rich in nitrogen
  45. why is nitrogen important?
    important for making chylorifill...
  46. fresh cow manure is best?
    false..contains too much ammonia, needs to be dried out.
  47. what two thing create good crumb structure?
    mixture of clay and organic matter, hold in moisture.
  48. City people use what type of plants?
    Pakasandra plants...root tone iba & naa to make iaa.
  49. dog and cat waste are good on vegatables?
    false, will get tape worms...!! creates cyst in body
  50. what peat moss is so acid, it's sterile at 4.5 ph...used to coagulate blood in war...holds air and water...1lb will hold 16lbs of water
    Sphagnum moss
  51. dry pig blood has lots of ?
    iron, protein, nitrogen
  52. can't remove from clay..chemically bonded?
    hydroscopic water
  53. water that can't help plants?
    run off water
  54. water mocules that are chemically bonded with clay
    gravitational water
  55. plants use this water like a paper towel, organic matter
    capillary water
  56. ash turns acid into?
  57. percolation goes which direction
  58. apercualtion goes which direction
  59. too much alakaline creates what in plants?
    high salt, plant dies.
  60. passage of water from high concentration through low concentration, thru a semipermeable membrane?
  61. is the PCW Cellouse completely permeable?
  62. is the cell membrane semi permeable?
  63. 100% h20 on outside of plant wall creates when water enters faster than it leaves?
    tugor pressure
  64. lignum makes plant do what?
    stand up/erect
  65. ammonia nitrate does what for grass?
    makes it GREEN!
  66. If there is no tugor pressure  and 50% h2o and 50% ammonia nitrate the h2o is removed by?
    playmoysis...reverse osmois
  67. what causes plasmolysis?
    too much salt in fertilizer opposed to water...the cytoplasm pulls away from cell wall due to loos of water thought osmosis the loosing tugor pressure.
  68. reason you can not drink sea water?
    creates plasmolysis and shorts circuits nerves in body due to lack of water.
  69. what does hickory smoked do?
    burns off formaldahide...keeps flys/maggots off ham
  70. brown sugar and sodium nitrate makes ham what color?
  71. sodium nitrate is what?
    meat preserving salts
  72. how is ham cured?
    through plasmolosysis
  73. what happens if you add just regular table salt to ham...NaCL?
    will turn ham brown.
  74. where do you find sodium borate?
    death valley, CA
  75. why do plants die in death valley?
    there is more apercolation than percolation...too many minerals, not enough water...not enough tugor pressure...plants die from plasmoloysis.
  76. what are two types of gases in soil?
    oxygen & CO2
  77. Granite type dust-white very porous and full of air?
    perlite...before sinks it floats...
  78. sodium borate is?
    detergent sand, removes oil from clothes
  79. aerobic respiration requires?
    oxygen and glucose and water to make atp = Energy
  80. what is shot from guns and mined from volcanic eruptions?
  81. bacteria in soil and organic matter make =
    minerals which become fertilzer
  82. earth worms eat rock particles and create?
    worm castings/worm manure breakdown of organic matter
  83. ammonia nitrate will?
    plysmotize cells...
  84. nitrogen will make leaves?
  85. lack of nitrogen in a a plant will cause?
    make plant plasmatize
  86. with out MG...magniesium
    plant won't chemically bond together
  87. Dolomite limestone consists of ?
    • 50% Ca++Co3 calcium carbonate
    • 50 MG Co3 magnesium carbonate
  88. calcium carobanate
    causes hard water
  89. Calcium carbonate reacts with?
    strongs acids releasing CO2
  90. when calcium caronate is saturated with water and co2 what happens?
    forms a soluable bicarbonate...also called calcium hydrogen carbonate...depends on ph
  91. When CO2 and rain water react with limestone...the acid reaction creates?
    the calcium carbonate to form a soluable calcium bicarbonate.
  92. yellow leaf indicates lack of ?
  93. peters 20/20/20 is best
    1 tablespoon to 1 gallon of distilled h2o
  94. ions are best at what ppm
  95. potassium in soil can't hold?
    MG...percolation shows definicency
  96. bog plants can live in minerals?
    false...need acid water or distilled.
  97. pesticides help worm population?
    false...they eat decomposed organic matter important to compost
  98. worm castings enrich soil?
  99. what does burning leaves release into air?
  100. fish food, size of 5 human hairs, eat bacteria
    tubifix worms
  101. ants aeroyate soil?
    true...sub soil, rock particles
  102. chipmonks burrow and bring sub soil to ?
  103. ground hogs and praire dogs make?
    top soil mix with sub soil w/buffalo chips
  104. moles build up?
    top soil
  105. cations are positive charges +?
  106. anions are negative charges -?
  107. ions consist of atoms and molecules?
  108. cation exchange only happens in alkaline soil?
  109. acid soil = great wealth?
    false...alkaline soil does!!!
  110. acid soil is poverty?
    true...but can change ph by adding limestone on top soil.
  111. is h2o by itself stable?
  112. h2o is a super fast molecule?
  113. H+ is what type of ion?
    hydrogen and is positive
  114. OH- ion is/has?
    hydroxide ion and negative
  115. acids have more?
    H+ than OH-
  116. bases have more?
    OH- than H+
  117. acids taste sour?
    true...NOT bitter
  118. acids dissolve ...?
    metals and salts!!!
  119. are all salts soluable in acid?
  120. rain is always?
  121. magnesium sulfate is soluable?
  122. dolomite limestone is not soluable unless in
  123. cracks in bedrock/sink hole was caused by
    acid rain
  124. carbonic acid is weak, necessary for diet
  125. Base has more OH- hydroxides than H+ hydrogens...
  126. base have a bitter taste? soap
  127. taste buds on tip of tongue can taste bitter
  128. bases dissolves?
    fat and oil = lipids
  129. lipids and water =
  130. lipids, water plus base =
  131. base feels...
  132. an acid sour is better for you?
  133. alkaline can kill you?
  134. oil holds dirt in place
    true..soap removes oil
  135. you can have an acid base without water?
    false...need water
  136. if you have a lot of molecules it's faster?
  137. if you have a few ions things move slower...?
  138. a lot of ions =
  139. -----------> means
    breaksdown quickly
  140. --> means
    breaksdown slowly
  141. acids can be strong or weak
  142. what acid kills germs on contact?
    boric acid
  143. H+ is acid or base?
    acid and has ph under 7
  144. OH- is a base or acid?
    base and has ph over 7
  145. sulfuric acid is battery acid and ok to place in metal container? in plastic container!!!
  146. known as the Jeffrey dalmer acid?
    nitric acid...dissolves bones
  147. high ph soap will not burn you if you have a ph of 11 or more.
    FALSE. good for hard water cleaning....but need to get ammonia hydroxide.
  148. Using sodium or potassium hydroxide will not take your skin off if use?
    false will take skin off hands
  149. base + acid =
    acid salt
  150. Plants do not need to make iron to produce chlorifyl?
  151. rust is soluable?
    false needs more acid
  152. any acid salt is soluable?
  153. ferric chloride makes plants what and you only need a little?
    makes them green
  154. borax soap removes what from clothes?
  155. It's ok to drink alkaline water?
    false..will kill contains sodium boroxide!
  156. all bases have OH- group?
  157. all acids have a H+ group?
  158. A buffered salt requires?
    a weak acid or weak base...needs to resist ph change.
  159. phenal red is?
    and acid base indicator
  160. if phenal red turns's a base...'s an acid
  161. baking soda takes heat out of water?
  162. Ioidine salt keeps thyroid gland happy?
  163. Kosher salt is buffered salt, no iodine...clear?
  164. A buffered env is NOT important?
  165. A strong base and a strong acid make a?
    buffered weak acid or salt
  166. what does acid rain become when it hits ground?
    alkaline, because of limestone
  167. All bedrock is buffering material?
  168. all cations have a positive charge
  169. Cation exchange does not create alkaline soil...
  170. if the ph stayed the same, then the acid did not buffer the soil...?
  171. Atoms dissolve in water?
  172. each ph value above 4 indicates that the soil buffered increasing amounts of the acid.
  173. even soil capable of buffering acids can be overpowered if enough acid is added
  174. Carbonate has a negative two charges
  175. Bicarbonate has negative one charge
  176. Strong base conditions = more carbonate ions
  177. Weak base solutions, bicarbonate ions will be more
  178. Compounds with carbonate ions are not soluble in water at room temp?
  179. Many bicarbonate saltes are soluble in wter at room temp?
  180. Bicarbonate is not alkaline and is not vital to ph buffering system?
  181. Alkaline is having a pH greater than 7 and has a relatively low concentration of hydrogen ions.
  182. Bicarboate compounds are more stable in nature than carbonate compounds?
  183. sodium bicarbonate is?
    baking soda
  184. +ions =
  185. anions =
  186. acid base =
    salt & water
  187. acid hydrogen + charge
  188. Base hydroxide =
    -charge /true
  189. Acid or base mixed with salt will always have a positive + charge?
  190. the longer the arrow the slower the action
    false...the faster it goes
  191. Acid base =
    water molecule & salt
  192. baking soda can neutralize acid
  193. copper sulfate is
    acid salt
  194. bicarbonate came from
    cabonic acid
  195. buffered salt =
    strong base/weak acid
  196. any acid to water it will still remain alkaline
  197. Lime stone protects act buffer from acid rain that has low ph4
  198. smoke mixed with non metallic oxides + h2o makes?
  199. Rain is always acid because of ?
    CO2 carbon in the air...
  200. alkaline water will kill bog plants
  201. the white smoke from a flare is?
    sulfer dioxide
  202. the flame from a flare is?
    sulfuric acid
  203. burning coal or pirate creating too much sulfer creates?
    acid rain
  204. Nitric Acid was used by?
    jeff dalhmer and if gets in lungs burns
  205. with out a + =
  206. with a + =
  207. Nitrogen is ?
    most common element in atmosphere
  208. Smoke stacks emit?
    nitrogen oxide
  209. C)2 + H2o + heat =
  210. blue flame which is hottest can?
    make nitrogen oxide combust
  211. N2 + O2 (orange flame) =
  212. N2 + O2 (blue flame) =
    nitrix oxide
  213. nitrogen oxide from cars in atmosphere, when mixed with rain...creates?
    acid rain
  214. Chlyifil is
  215. burning leaves brown gas NOT
  216. burn natural gas today instead of coal...
    so no sulfuric acid
  217. acid rain hitting limestone is neutralized
  218. metallic oxide + h20=
    a base
  219. ashes are good for soil...
    yes, they make it alkaline
  220. fen praire grass is modified for living with?
  221. alkaline soil is better than ?
    acid soil
  222. strong acid & strong base =
  223. acids & water break into?
  224. only strong acids & bases produce a lot of ?
  225. weaker acids and bases produce more?
  226. ph of 0 =
    a strong acid
  227. ph 7 neutral
  228. p14 =
    strong base
  229. OH =
  230. strong acid + weak base =
    acid salt/buffered
  231. strong acid + strong base =
    neutral salt
  232. weak acid + strong base =
    alkaline salt
  233. weak acid + weak base =
    neutral salt
  234. The strong always wins...
  235. buffers are weak acids mixed with?
  236. acids begin with an
  237. bases end in?
  238. when a base and an acid are combined they form a
    salt & a water
  239. base and acids mixed will make a
    molecule/then h's and oh's will turn into a water
  240. photosynthesis/chylorfil bulk of plant is made up of
    lignin & celluouse
  241. how many diff. kind of amino acids?
  242. photosynthesis does?
    provide oxygen and food with co2&h2o and sunlight which makes chylorifil which makes food for plant
  243. amino acid is building blocks for?
    protein, which make up cells
  244. h+3PO4=
    anion acid base for all salts.
  245. N03 + po4 =
    dna+rna(protein)+atp (energy cell carrier)
  246. muscles work because of ?
    ATP molecules produced in respriation
  247. the tallest dark green leaves are?
    dna molecules
  248. photosynsis sugar is first supply derived...then
    all become chylorfil in stem
  249. cellulose and lignen are produced by
    co2 & h2o
  250. co2 makes things grow
    better and 300x more when we burn coal
  251. the more co2 in air...the faster what occurs?
    photosynthesis...thus more food being produced
  252. yellow = an
  253. you can increase co2 into air by?
  254. adm produces
    alchol for ethonal gas
  255. co2 provides
  256. increasing co2 will make plants grow faster
  257. methanol/wood alcohol will make you go blind
  258. Ethynol alchol is drinkable
  259. non metallic in water =
  260. metalic in water =
  261. rocks on outside of plant are calcium bicarbonate
  262. oligotrophic lake has limestone?
    false...granite bedrock
  263. oliotrophic lake has algae, lots of fish and plants!
  264. eutrophic lake has granite bedrock and no plants?
    false...has limestone and many plants.
  265. eutrophic lake has trout fish?
    false...bass and bluegill, carp
  266. oligotrophic lake has carp and bluegill
    false...has trout! need high level of oxygen
  267. after co2 in water is used up in eutrophic lake, plants will then feed off of calcium bicarbonate
  268. difference between oligotrophic and eurtrohic lake are the levels of?
    carbon dioxide
  269. add more calcium bicarbonate CA++(Hco3)2 to water to produce more?
  270. cold water holds more gas?
  271. calcium carbonate is not soluable in water
  272. limnology is the study of?
  273. if you add acid to carbonate you get a ?
  274. calcium bicarbonate is in
    both water and soil
  275. more limestone you add to water the more?
    fish it produces.
  276. sulfer dioxide + h2o =
    sulfuric acid
  277. no more sulfer dioxide in air is causing
    more global warming
  278. c Hopkins cafe mg
    carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, nitrogen, sulfer, calcium, iron, magnesium
  279. tufa rock in stream is derived from calcium bicarbonate to calcium carbonate, sedimentary form of calcium carbonate
  280. calcium bicarbonate can travel and produce in warm shallow oceans?
  281. carbonic acid is a weak acid?
  282. carbonic acids form two kinds of salts?
    carbonates and bicarbonates
  283. volcano/sulfer dioxide produces
    sulfuric acid rain
  284. sulfer dioxide is a toxic gas, released by
    volcanoes and cars emissions and cause acid rain.
  285. plants can use phosphorous?
  286. to stabilize phosphorus you must place in ?
  287. phorsphurs once water evaporates can?
    bust into flames...arsonists favor
  288. when phosphorus burn it creates PO4 ion...called phosphate?
    true...worth going to war over!!!
  289. every dna molecule must have?
    phosphate...can not have life without!
  290. phosphate is a component of ?
    dna, rna and atp... form cell membranes
  291. RNA make?
    amino acids...protein
  292. Cells make Dna/rna to make?!
  293. in water you will find diatoms, shells made of glass?
  294. oil comes from?
    diatoms, NOT dinousars!
  295. diatom's nucleus is full of Dna and oil?
  296. diatoms create and produce
    oxygen and are major group of algea, common photoplankton.
  297. diatoms live in alkaline water...
  298. PO4 type A is phosphate =
    soluable organic
  299. PO4 B type is =
    insoluable organic (diatoms)
  300. PO4 type C =
    Insoluable organic (rock) does dissolve in sea water
  301. PO4 type D are =
    soluable organic (nuleotides) dead fish rots (biological molecules the form building blocks of nucleic acids (dna and rna) to carry packets of energy within cell
  302. nucleotides are
    (biological molecules the form building blocks of nucleic acids (dna and rna) to carry packets of energy within cell
  303. a small crustacean found in the sea and and nearly every fresh water habitat.
    copepod, contain omega 3 fish oil...keep arteries clean and keep fat out of system.
  304. feed catfish sardines to create omega 3 to create healthy like marine fish...
  305. copepod are cows of the sea...dna food (b)
    see chart
  306. fish (b) dna type
    see chart
  307. bones (c) type calcium phosphate
    see chart
  308. acid water breaks down
  309. alkaline water does not break down
  310. Nucleotides (d) are building blocks for dna molecules...soluable orgainic..fall leaves stinky smell
  311. If ph of 8 or higher, will never breakdown
  312. bacteria breakdown and make type a
    see chart
  313. fishbones on bottom make type c PO4..insoluable organic
    see chart
  314. fox river has 250ppm of PO4
  315. 1lb of PO4 for every
    million pound so rock
  316. higher PO4 the better the
  317. Red tide is caused by protozones in the water that give off waste material, causing fish arties to clog up and suffoecate fish?
  318. if you step on fish bones from red tide can cause blood poisoning...
  319. fish bones produce a lot of PO4...havest dust, when wet transforms into
    phosphorus acid...causes pitting on car bumpers
  320. triple super phosphate can be made soulable by adding phoforic acid?
  321. phosphate bone meal has slow release and aborb through roots...acid rains dissolves slowly... and
    root cap give off carbonic acid and PO4 dissolves...long term tulips.
  322. triple super release...short term crop tomoatos
  323. phosphate is important to make
    flowers to create new cells!!!
  324. potassium creates
    new cell division
  325. potassium also helps develope
    root hairs to absorb water & minerals and collenchyma cells to make plants more rigid/stems stiff
  326. Old roots can NOT absorb?
  327. potassium comes from?
    wood burning ashes
  328. potassium chyloride is soluable
  329. high potattisum will kill fish...stop muscles from working...
  330. potassium chylorid is not good
  331. a source for potassium is potassium permanganate...bright purple in color
  332. nitrogen is most common element in the air?
  333. nitrate makes chylorfil
  334. if not chlyorfil no photosynthesis
    true, no food
  335. bacteria and roots of legumes =
    nitrates NO3
  336. nitrate acid is good for plants
    false..will kill them
  337. dust bowl created
    crop rotation
  338. for crop rotation 1yr should plant?
    clover field legumes
  339. plant what for 2nd year rotation?
    corn...maximizes nitrogen back into soil
  340. plant what for 3rd year crop rotation?
    wheat, oat barely...short grain plants, require very little nitrogen...get from excess corn previous year
  341. 4 yr crop rotation plant...
    replant clover we plant alfalfa...
  342. must have cows for crop rotation
    true...must have cows urine to put nitrogen back into soil...
  343. roots of clover=bacteria with make
    nutrients and energy...cut frequently for meristamatic cells...
  344. Plant legumes to make
    Nitrate!!! clover/alfalpha is a legume
  345. Anhydrous ammoina
    compressed ammonia (ice rink) put in ground with corn endless supply of nitrogen...don't need cows since already in ground
  346. anhydrous ammonia is made by
    arab oil companies
  347. if plant runs out of nitrogen
    top of leaves turn bright green and bottom leaves turn yellow and fall chylorfil moves up stem.
  348. when springs comes excess nitrogen in soil, what happens?
    it gets in well water and can cause intestinal cancer and birth defects.  when use anhydrous ammoina have more than plants can use. same can happen if over fertilze lawn, since nitrogen is main ingredient in lawn fertilizer. percolation sucks nitrogen downwards into well
  349. ammonia nitrate make grass
    really green...NH4=NO-3
  350. ammonia nitrate is very soluable and cannot be removed from water? can be removed by plants, but NOT chemicals
  351. can not have a cation exchange without clay?
  352. buffer salt does NOT allow change?
    true...limestone is a buffered salt...buffer requires weak acid or base
  353. acid plants can not live in alkaline water
    true...can't have minerals because perculation would wash them down into soil...
  354. plants can not use hydrogen ions (metallic)
  355. alkaline clay soil holds minerals with perculation they stay
  356. anything less than a 7 is acidic...
  357. anything greater than a 7 is a base
  358. if you hava and acid of ph3 and a base of ph9 both are weak and =
  359. if you have an OH =
    base and comes apart in water
  360. so in water naoh becomes...
    na+ and oh-
  361. in water koh becomes
    k+ and oh-
  362. when base goes into separates into can tell an ion...has a + or - next to them.
  363. acid has an H next to it and in water it comes apart and
  364. strong acids = ions that don't go back together...
  365. weak acids...ions tend to reform
  366. nitrate is soulable in
  367. if the plant is limp...what is missing and why
    lack of chylimia cells, potassium defincey
  368. if plant is not flowering, why?
    lack of phosphourus...makes pollen grain 2 nuclie inside every cell...smallest cell in plant.
  369. NPK=
    nitrogen, phosphous, k pottasium
  370. examples of NPK...
    peters 20/20/20...completely soulable...$$$$$ expensive. 12/12/12 or 7/7/7 is less expensive and for bigger gardens. like coffee grounds
  371. nitrogen is important for
  372. phosphorous important for
  373. potassium important for
  374. 10/2/10 encourages
    leaves and root...discourages flowering...lawn fertilzer
  375. 8/16/16 for rose/tomato ferziler
    rose super triple phospahte
  376. first add 20/20/20, then phosphate a couple of weeks later
  377. super triple phosphate is not water soluable?
  378. too much fertizler will cause playmolysis?
    true...use ion stick to determine amount
  379. NH4NO3
    ammonia nitrate
  380. ammonia nitrate, super triple phosphate and kcl...potassium chylordide need all summer long?
  381. for tomatos use
    triple super nitrate
  382. lettuce use
    ammonia nitrate
  383. sunflower and sweet potatoes use
  384. add milk or dolomite limestone to add calcium
  385. 0-0-50 potassium, put on roots, not leaves...
  386. NO3 =
    nitrate = fertilzer
  387. NO2 =
    Nitrite = food preservation
  388. Na+NO2 =
    sodium nitrate...use on meats to preserve...brown sugar make ham pink...NACL make ham brown.
  389. sulfer can't be used by plants
  390. through SO4 plants absorb sulfate and get amino acids...
  391. Plants need ALL kinds of ammino acids or will not survive
  392. CaSO4...calcium sulfate = gypsum (acid base)
    grainular form that you put on top when becomes wet...
    becomes acid and dissolves self.
  393. bases disolve
    oil/fats/lipids/make soap
  394. acids dissolve
    metals and salts
  395. Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge.
  396. acid =
  397. base =
  398. Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−. It consists of an oxygen and a hydrogen atom held together by a covalent bond, and carries a negative electric charge. It is an important but usually minor constituent of water. It functions as a base, a ligand, a nucleophile and a catalyst. The hydroxide ion forms salts, some of which dissociate in aqueous solution, liberating solvated hydroxide ions
  399. Hydrogen plays a particularly important role in acid-base chemistry with many reactions exchanging protons between soluble molecules. In ionic compounds, it can take a negative charge (an anion known as a hydride and written as H−), or as a positively charged species H+. The latter cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds always occur as more complex species.
  400. Ca = calcium, it's important for?
    apical meristem..w/o plant dies and the middle lamella...holds stuff together with calcium pectate...firm stem
  401. bedrock is not soluable
  402. alkaline soil not soluable, need acid to make soluable
  403. Ca++ = calcium chloride is
    salt and soluable...used in cement...absorbs moisture from own atmosphere...will dissolve in own moisture.
  404. calcium chloride...if sprinkle on weeds will kill?
    true...plymolysis...a table spoon will dissolve 100%
  405. Me Magnisium definnicy add
    Epsom salts magnesium sulfate
  406. In plants, magnesium is necessary for synthesis of chlorophyll and photosynthesis.
  407. granite does not dissolve in water, it's an acid rock...
    true, but alabaster does...
  408. ferric iron is NOT soluable in water
  409. fe+++ ferric hydroxide plummets to bottom of tank not making iron available to plants
  410. east coast has acid not use fish filter...plants will die to lack of iron?
  411. white roots mean lack of
  412. everything soluable in acid env.
  413. peatmoss has not nutritional value?
    true...just holds water
  414. CO2 + H2O ⇌ H2CO3 =
    carbonic acid
  415. Carbonic acid is what forms when carbon dioxide dissolves in water. It is a weak acid but will over time, dissolve many rocks, especially carbonates such as limestone
  416. hydro carbate is not stable in water,  outside plant absorbs and converts to calcium bicarbonate on inside...
  417. 10am co2 gone...plants use calcium bicarbonate rest of day
    true...lots of food...
  418. photosynis grow faster in water, true...not all oxygen used...makes more oxygen the plant can comsume
  419. respiration consumes
    true...roots and leaves can use respiration
  420. sugar and oxygen in water stay in plant
  421. calcium stays on plants
  422. if no hole in plant holder...used distilled, otherwise too many minerals will apeculate back up into plant causing it to die...
  423. edta is a chelating agent
  424. EDTA, or ethylenediaminetetraacetate, (−O2CH2)
  425. iron is not soluable unless have acid water
  426. if we eat salad we all have edta in blood
  427. edta is water soluable and chemically bonds with iron...make leaves green
  428. Chelated iron...add to alkaline soil
    makes leaves and roots green
  429. edta keeps iron soluble in alkaline enviornment
  430. if plants lack iron they have white leaves on top
  431. i.e of chelated iron...feti-lome liquid on leaves roots...make green
  432. chemically bonded together ++ charges
  433. Mg++ Magniusium makes
  434. with mg++ veins green/yellow leaf has deficinency
  435. mg++ defincey is derived from acid salt, can fix by
    adding dolomite limestone or Epson salt...soluable
  436. in Mg++So4 magnesium sulfate...human body
  437. Mn Manganes...have to chemically analyze to determine what defincy is ...or lack of fix
    just add peters 20/20/20
  438. also to fix any magniesm difficency add Potassium permangate...purple solution
    kills fungus, turns toes nails brown, cures sick fish...
  439. in city water no iron or calcium in mg in water...add K+ perange
  440. potassium makes
    chyllemica cells, root delvelopement, cells divide
  441. Epsom salt & k+permangate=
    shotgun approach
  442. potassium makes green to make chylorfil and to provide new growth tissue
Card Set:
Soil & Minerals
2013-05-07 04:07:06
dirt soil acids bases

study of botany
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