Chapter 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissue (TB)

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lonelygirl
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217442
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Chapter 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissue (TB)
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2013-05-08 18:45:43
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Biology Anatomy Physiology
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Biology 103A
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  1. The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress? 

    A) spongy bone 
    B) compact bone 
    C) trabecular bone
    D) irregular bone 
    B) compact bone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________. 

    A) fat 
    B) blood-forming cells
    C) elastic tissue 
    D) Sharpey's fibers
    A) fat
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the ________. 

    A) chondrocyte
    B) osteoclast 
    C) osteocyte 
    D) osteoblast 
    D) osteoblast 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo? 

    A) elastic connective tissue 
    B) dense fibrous connective tissue 
    C) fibrocartilage 
    D) hyaline cartilage
    D) hyaline cartilage
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. In bone formation, a deficiency of growth hormone will cause ________. 

    A) decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage 
    B) inadequate calcification of bone 
    C) decreased osteoclast activity
    D) increased osteoclast activity
    A) decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ________.

    A) metaphysis 
    B) articular cartilage
    C) epiphysis 
    D) diaphysis 
    D) diaphysis 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The term diploë refers to ________. 

    A) the internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones 
    B) the double-layered nature of the connective tissue covering the bone 
    C) the fact that most bones are formed of two types of bone tissue 
    D) the two types of marrow found within most bones
    A) the internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Select the correct statement concerning the location of blood-forming tissue.

    A) Blood-forming tissue is found in the skull and pelvic bones only.
    B) There is blood-forming marrow in most short bones of an adult. 
    C) There is blood-forming marrow in the diaphysis of most long bones of an adult. 
    D) The sternum (breastbone) is a good source of blood-forming tissue. 
    D) The sternum (breastbone) is a good source of blood-forming tissue.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Factors in preventing (or delaying) osteoporosis include ________. 

    A) decreasing weight-bearing exercise 
    B) drinking fluoridated water 
    C) decreasing exposure to the sun
    D) increasing dietary vitamin C 
    B) drinking fluoridated water
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Ossification of the ends of long bones ________. 

    A) is a characteristic of intramembranous bone formation 
    B) is produced by secondary ossification centers 
    C) involves medullary cavity formation 
    D) takes twice as long as diaphysis
    B) is produced by secondary ossification centers 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Cartilage is found in strategic places in the human skeleton. What is responsible for the resilience of cartilage?

    A) phosphate ions
    B) hydroxyapatite deposits 
    C) high water content 
    D) calcium influx 
    C) high water content
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. The most abundant skeletal cartilage type is ________. 

    A) elastic 
    B) hyaline 
    C) fibrocartilage 
    D) epiphyseal
    B) hyaline 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Which of the following is (are) not the function(s) of the skeletal system? 

    A) support 
    B) production of blood cells (hematopoiesis) 
    C) storage of minerals 
    D) communication
    D) communication
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. The structural unit of compact bone is ________. 

    A) the osteon
    B) lamellar bone 
    C) osseous matrix 
    D) spongy bone 
    A) the osteon
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ________. 

    A) chondrocytes and osteocytes
    B) marrow and osteons 
    C) osteoblasts and osteoclasts 
    D) cartilage and compact bone 
    C) osteoblasts and osteoclasts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________. 

    A) the struts of bone known as spicules
    B) a bony matrix with hyaline cartilage
    C) Perforating (Sharpey's ) fibers 
    D) Volkmann's canals 
    C) Perforating (Sharpey's ) fibers 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of ________. 

    A) yellow marrow and spicules 
    B) blood vessels and nerve fibers
    C) cartilage and interstitial lamellae 
    D) osteoclasts and osteoblasts 
    B) blood vessels and nerve fibers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. The small spaces in bone tissue that are holes in which osteocytes live are called ________. 

    A) Haversian canals 
    B) trabeculae
    C) Volkmann's canals 
    D) lacunae 
    D) lacunae 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary? 

    A) An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue. 
    B) A medullary cavity forms.
    C) A bone collar forms around the cartilage model. 
    D) The cartilage matrix begins to deteriorate. 
    A) An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. The process of bones increasing in width is known as ________. 

    A) appositional growth 
    B) closing of the epiphyseal plate 
    C) concentric growth
    D) long bones reaching adult length and width 
    A) appositional growth 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process? 

    A) osteoblast 
    B) osteocyte 
    C) stem cell
    D) osteoclast 
    D) osteoclast 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream? 

    A) calcitonin 
    B) estrogen
    C) parathyroid hormone 
    D) thyroxine 
    C) parathyroid hormone 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Vertebrae are considered ________ bones. 

    A) irregular
    B) short 
    C) long 
    D) flat 
    A) irregular
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. The universal loss of mass seen in the skeleton, which begins about the age of 40 ________. 

    A) reflects incomplete osteon formation and mineralization 
    B) is absolutely uniform throughout the skeleton 
    C) is slower in females than in males 
    D) is greater in African Americans than in Northern Europeans
    A) reflects incomplete osteon formation and mineralization 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. A bone fracture perpendicular to the bone's axis is called a(n) ________ fracture.

    A) linear 
    B) incomplete
    C) nondisplaced 
    D) transverse 
    D) transverse
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Wolff's law is concerned with ________. 
    A) the diameter of the bone being dependent on the ratio of osteoblasts to osteoclasts
    B) the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it 
    C) the function of bone being dependent on shape 
    D) vertical growth of bones being dependent on age 
    B) the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Cranial bones develop ________. 

    A) from cartilage models 
    B) within fibrous membranes 
    C) from a tendon 
    D) within osseous membranes
    B) within fibrous membranes 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels? 

    A) thyroid 
    B) spleen
    C) pineal gland 
    D) parathyroid 
    A) thyroid 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Osteomyelitis is ________. 

    A) literally known as "soft bones" 
    B) due to pus-forming bacteria 
    C) partially due to insufficient dietary calcium 
    D) caused by altered vitamin D metabolism
    B) due to pus-forming bacteria 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. Appositional growth is ________. 

    A) growth at the epiphyseal plate 
    B) the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage 
    C) along the edges only
    D) the lengthening of hyaline cartilage
    B) the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth? 

    A) Fibroblasts give rise to chondrocytes that differentiate and form cartilage. 
    B) Unspecialized cells from mesenchyme develop into chondrocytes, which divide and form cartilage. 
    C) Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.
    D) Growth occurs in the lining of the long bones. 
    C) Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ________. 

    A) from the edges inward 
    B) in a circular fashion
    C) by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis 
    D) by pulling the diaphysis toward the epiphysis 
    C) by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Spongy bones are made up of a framework called ________. 

    A) lamellar bone 
    B) osseous lamellae
    C) osteons 
    D) trabeculae 
    D) trabeculae 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Osteogenesis is the process of ________. 

    A) making collagen fibers for calcified cartilage
    B) bone destruction to liberate calcium 
    C) making a cartilage model of the fetal bone 
    D) bone formation 
    D) bone formation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through ________. 

    A) differentiation of osteoclasts 
    B) interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates 
    C) the secretion of bone matrix into the medullary cavity 
    D) calcification of the matrix
    B) interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is important for bone growth during infancy and childhood? 

    A) thyroid hormone
    B) somatomedins 
    C) prolactin
    D) growth hormone 
    D) growth hormone 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What might be the cause? 

    A) too much vitamin D in the diet 
    B) elevated levels of sex hormones 
    C) osteoblast activity exceeds osteoclast activity
    D) overproduction of thyroid hormone 
    B) elevated levels of sex hormones
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. It is thought that remodeling or bone growth is in response to the forces placed on it. Which of the following hypotheses may explain how mechanical forces communicate with cells responsible for bone remodeling? 

    A) Bone deposition by osteoclasts is responsible for remodeling. 
    B) Electrical signals direct the remodeling process.
    C) Vitamin D enhances the remodeling process. 
    D) Increase in the synthesis of growth hormone directs the remodeling process. 
    B) Electrical signals direct the remodeling process.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ________. 

    A) sodium, calcium, and vitamin E 
    B) calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D 
    C) vitamin D, phosphate, and chloride
    D) potassium, phosphate, and vitamin D 
    B) calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Which fracture would be least likely in a 92-year-old? 

    A) compression 
    B) comminuted 
    C) greenstick
    D) spiral
    C) greenstick
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. _____________ are not one of the four cell types that populate bone tissue in adults. 

    A) Mesenchymal cells 
    B) Osteocytes 
    C) Osteoblasts 
    D) Osteoprogenitor cells
    A) Mesenchymal cells 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Ostealgia is ________________. 

    A) pain in a bone 
    B) a disease of the bone 
    C) a defect called clubfoot 
    D) fractured bone
    A) pain in a bone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause?

    A) inadequate calcification of bone
    B) increased osteoclast activity
    C) decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage
    D) decreased osteoclast activity
    C) decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates a projection that helps to form joints?

    A) epicondyle
    B) ramus
    C) fossa
    D) meatus
    E) foramen
    B) ramus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early childhood, as well as shaping the articular surfaces?

    A) epiphyseal plate
    B) epiphyseal line
    C) lacunae
    D) Haversian system
    A) epiphyseal plate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Blood cell formation is called ________.
    hematopoiesis
  47. A bone embedded in a tendon is called a(n) ________ bone.
    sesamoid
  48. A central (Haversian) canal may contain arteries, veins, capillaries, lymph vessels, and ________ fibers.
    nerve
  49. A long bone forms by a process known as ________ ossification.
    endochondral
  50. ________ growth is growth in the diameter of long bones.
    Appositional
  51. ________ are multinucleated cells that destroy bone.
    Osteoclasts
  52. ________ is a disease of the bone in which bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposit, leaving the person with thin and often very fragile bones.
    Osteoporosis
  53. A round or oval hole through a bone that contains blood vessels and/or nerves is called a(n) ________.
    foramen
  54. Hematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells within the red marrow cavities of certain bones. True or False
    True
  55. Compact bone is replaced more often than spongy bone. True or False
    False
  56. Bones are classified by whether they are weight-bearing or protective in function. True or False
    False
  57. The periosteum is a tissue that serves only to protect the bone because it is not supplied with nerves or blood vessels. True or False
    False
  58. Short, irregular, and flat bones have large marrow cavities in order to keep the weight of the bones light. True or False
    False
  59. In newborn infants, the medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone contain yellow bone marrow. True or False
    False
  60. The structural unit of compact bone (osteon) resembles the growth rings of a tree trunk. True or False
    True
  61. The term osteoid refers to the organic part of the matrix of compact bones. True or False
    True
  62. Sixty-five percent of the mass of bone is a compound called hydroxyapatite. True or False
    True
  63. All bones formed by intramembranous ossification are irregular bones. True or False
    False
  64. An osteon contains osteocytes, lamellae, and a central canal, and is found in compact bone only. True or False
    True
  65. The trabeculae of spongy bone are oriented toward lines of stress. True or False
    True
  66. Bone tissue in the skeleton of a human fetus is completely formed at six months' gestation. True or False
    False
  67. Each consecutive bone lamella has collagen fibers that wrap in alternating directions. True or False
    True
  68. Cartilage has a flexible matrix which can accomodate mitosis of chrondrocytes. True or False
    True

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