Medical Terminology Ch. 4-Ch.6

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Medical Terminology Ch. 4-Ch.6
2013-05-08 04:09:52
medical terminology AHS 200 orientation health care careers

Quick & Easy Medical Terminology by Peggy C. Leonard, Ch.4, Ch.5, Ch.6
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  1. diagnosis
    identification of a disease or condition
  2. prognosis
    predicted outcome of disease or condition
  3. 4 Techniques of H&P (history and physical)
    • Inspection: observe and listen
    • Palpitation: feel
    • Percussion: tap
    • Auscultation: listen with stethescope
  4. Endoscopy
    visual inspection of body with endoscope
  5. Endoscope
    illuminated instrument used to view inside body cavity or organ
  6. Catheter
    hollow, flexible tube inserted into body cavity to withdraw or instill fluids, perform tests, see vessel or cavity
  7. CT
    computed tomography, uses ionizing radiation to produce detailed image of cross section
  8. MRI
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging, creates images of internal structures based on magnetic properties of chemical elements in the body, can see soft tissue
  9. algesi/o
    sensitivity to pain
  10. chem/o
    chemical, to kill
  11. pharmac/o, pharmaceut/i
    drugs or medicine
  12. plast/o
  13. therapeut/o
  14. tox/o
  15. -therapy
  16. Homeostasis
    constant internal environment maintained by the body
  17. ana-
    upward, excessive or again
  18. -plasia
    development or formulation of tissue
  19. aplasia
    lack of development of organ or tissue
  20. dysphasia
    abnormal development of tissues
  21. hypoplasia
    underdevelopment of organ or tissue
  22. hyperplasia
    abnormal increase in the number of normal cells
  23. hypertrophy
    increase in the size of an organ caused by increasing size of cells
  24. anter/o
    nearer to or toward the front, ventral
  25. poster/o
    nearer or toward the back, dorsal, behind
  26. ventr/o
    belly side, anterior surface of humans
  27. dors/o
    toward the back side, posterior
  28. medi/o
  29. later/o
    toward the side, farther from midline
  30. super/o
    uppermost or above
  31. infer/o
    lowermost or below
  32. proxim/o
    nearer origin or point of attachment
  33. dist/o
    far or distant from origin or point of attachment
  34. cephal/o
    toward the head
  35. intern/o
  36. extern/o
  37. Frontal (coronal) plane
    divides body into front and back
  38. Transverse plane
    divides the body into upper and lower
  39. Sagittal plane
    divides the body into right and left sides
  40. midsagittal plane
    divides the body into 4 equal halves
  41. Recumbent position
    on one's side
  42. Supination
    palms facing up
  43. Pronation
    palms facing down
  44. viscera
    internal organs
  45. peritoneum
    lines abdominal cavity and enfolds organs
  46. adhesion
    sticking together of 2 structures that are normally separated
  47. omphal/o, umbilic/o
  48. onych/o
  49. pelv/i
  50. peritono-
  51. acr/o
    extremities (arms and legs)
  52. dactyl/o
    digit (toes, fingers, both)
  53. lapar/o
    abdominal wall
  54. ascites
    abnormal accumulation of fluid
  55. palmar
    pertaining to the palm
  56. plantar
    undersurface of the foot, sole
  57. interstitial
    between cells
  58. dacry/o, lacrim/o
    tear, tearing, crying
  59. hidr/o
    sweat or perspiration
  60. hydr/o
    water, fluid
  61. -poiesis
  62. py/o
  63. sial/o
  64. coagul/o
  65. thromb/o
    clot (thrombus)
  66. anemia
    number of red blood cells or hemoglobin concentration is decreased
  67. pallor
  68. function of leukocytes
    to combat infection
  69. function of phagocytes
    to ingest and destroy bacteria, protozoa, cells and cell debris
  70. function of thrombocyte
    to clot blood
  71. leukemia
    increase in the number of leukocytes
  72. antigen
    any substance the body regards as foreign
  73. antibody
    disease-fighting protein produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen
  74. anaphylaxis
    hypersensitivity to previously encountered antigen that may result in itching, difficulty breathing, airway obstruction and shock
  75. BP
    blood pressure
  76. BX, bx
  77. C
    Centigrade, Celsius
  78. CA
  79. CT, CAT
    Computed tomography, computed axial tomography
  80. DOB
    date of birth
  81. CXR
    chest x-ray
  82. Dx
  83. F
  84. H&P
    history and physical
  85. Hx, hx
  86. MRI
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  87. R
  88. stat
  89. T
  90. VS
    vital signs
  91. AP
  92. CBC
    complete blood count
  93. CCU
    coronary care unti
  94. LLQ
    left lower quadrant
  95. LUQ
    left upper quadrant
  96. PA
    posteroanterior; physician assistant
  97. PT
    physical therapist
  98. RBC
    red blood cell
  99. RLQ
    right lower quadrant
  100. RUQ
    right upper quadrant
  101. WBC
    white blood cell
  102. WNL
    within normal limits
  103. crani/o
    • cranium
    • common name: skull
  104. cost/o
    • costa
    • common name: rib
  105. stern/o
    • sternum
    • common name: breastbone
  106. rachi/o, spin/o
    • spine
    • common name: backbone
  107. spondyl/o, vertebr/o
    • vertebrae
    • common name: spinal bones
  108. cervic/o
    • cervical / vertebrae
  109. thorac/o
    • thoracic / vertebrae
  110. lumb/o
    • lumbar / vertebrae
  111. sacr/o
    • sacrum (sacral vertebrae)
  112. coccyg/o
    • coccyx (coccygeal vertebrae)
  113. clavicul/o
    • clavicle
    • common name: collarbone

  114. scapul/o
    • scapula
    • common name: shoulderblade
  115. humer/o
    • humerus
    • common name: upper arm bone
  116. radi/o
    • radius
    • (larger bone of the forearm on thumb side)
  117. uln/o
    • ulna (smaller bone of the forearm)
  118. carp/o
    • carpals (wrist bones)
  119. metacarp/o
    • metacarpals (bones of the hand, leading to fingers)
  120. phalang/o
    • phalanges (bones of the finger)
  121. pelv/i
    • pelvis 
  122. ili/o
    • ilium (hip)
  123. ischi/o
    • ischium (sitting bone)
  124. pub/o
    • pubis 
  125. femor/o
    • femur
    • common name: thigh bone
  126. patell/o
    • patella
    • common name: kneecap
  127. fibul/o
    • fibula (smaller bone of the lower leg)
  128. tibi/o
    • tibia (bigger bone of the lower leg, on big toe side)
  129. tars/o
    • tarsals (ankle bones)
  130. calcane/o
    • calcaneus
    • common name: heel bone
  131. metatars/o
    • metatarsals (bones of the feet)
  132. phalang/o
    • phalanges (bones of the toes)
  133. sutures
    • immovable fibrous joints between many of the cranial bones
  134. true ribs
    • the upper 7 pairs of ribs that are joined directly to the sternum
  135. false ribs
    • the last 5 ribs of the rib cage; considered false because they are not directly connected to the sternum
  136. floating ribs
    • the last 2 paris of ribs of the rib cage; floating ribs because they are only connected posteriorly
  137. costal cartilage
    • cartilage connecting ribs to sternum
  138. ankyl/o
  139. arthr/o
    articulation, joint
  140. asthenia
  141. burs/o
    bursae, fluid-filled sacs located on areas of friction
  142. calc/i
  143. cellul/o
    little cell or compartment
  144. chondr/o
  145. de-
    down, from, or reversing
  146. meta-
    change or next in series
  147. -sarcoma
    malignant tumor of connective tissue
  148. ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
  149. pectoralis major
  150. articulation
    union between 2 or more bones
  151. dislocation
    displacement of a bone from a joint
  152. fracture
    the breaking of a bone
  153. simple fracture
    bone is broken but does not puncture the skin surface; complete / simple / closed
  154. compound fracture
    the broken bone is visible through an opening in the skin; compound / open / 2 pieces
  155. paraplegia
    paralysis of the lower portion of the body and of both legs
  156. quadriplegia, tetraplegia
    paralysis of the arms and legs; all four extremities
  157. sarcoma
    cancer of connective tissue
  158. osteomalacia
    reversible skeletal disorder characterized by a defect in the mineralization of bone
  159. spondylomalacia
    softening of the vertebrae
  160. spina bifida
    defective closure of the spine
  161. arthritis
    inflammatory condition of the joint characterized by pain
  162. rheumatoid arthritis
    chronic, systemic disease resulting in joint deformities, particularly of the hands and feet characterized by inflammation, soreness and stiffness of muscles and joint pain
  163. arthroscopy
    direct visualization of the interior of a joint using a special fiberoptic endoscope called the arthroscope
  164. myoplasty
    surgical repair of muscle
  165. craniotomy, craniectomy
    surgical opening into the skill is a craniotomy, part f the skull is removed
  166. lumbar puncture
    needle inserted into the space between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae
  167. C-1, C-2...C-7
    cervical vertebrae
  168. CTS
    carpal tunnel syndrome
  169. fx
  170. L-1, L-2...L-5
    lumbar vertebrae
  171. LS
  172. OT
    Occupational Therapy
  173. Ortho
  174. ROM
    range of motion
  175. S
    sacrum, sacral
  176. T-1, T-2...T-12
    thoracic vertebrae