NUR 203 Patho: Unit 1

Card Set Information

Author:
knl12689
ID:
21745
Filename:
NUR 203 Patho: Unit 1
Updated:
2010-06-02 12:45:28
Tags:
Fluid Electrolytes IV Solutions
Folders:

Description:
Unit 1 Fluid & Electrolytes, IV Solutions
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user knl12689 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. How is Hypokalemia Treated?
    • Potassium Replacement
    • ** NEVER GIVE IV PUSH**
    • **IT MUST BE ON A PUMP**
  2. What can an Isotonic solution cause?
    Circulatory Overload
  3. foods containing high levels of Potassium:
    • Chocolate
    • Meats
    • Carrots
    • Dried fruits, nuts & seeds
    • Veggies: potatoes, mushrooms & tomatoes
    • Fruits: oranges, bananas, apricots, cantalope
  4. Hypotonic Solution
    • Osmolarity belowe blood plasma
    • Hydrates Cells
    • FLuid shifts out of vessels and into cells
  5. When is use of Hypotonic Solutions Cautioned?
    • Cerebral Edema
    • Increased Intracranial Pressure
    • Hypotension
    • Third Spacing
  6. Hypertonic
    I shrink!!!
    • Osmolarity higher than plasma
    • "Shrinks Cell"
    • Fluid shifts out of cells and into vessels
    • This is used mostly for post op patients
  7. What are some causes of Hyponatremia?
    • GI losses
    • Hyperglycemia
    • Burns
    • Trauma
    • Renal Failure
  8. What are the signs & symptoms of Hyponatremia?
    • Weakness
    • Muscle Cramps
    • Twitching
    • Nausea/Vomiting
    • Postural Hypotension
    • Lethary
    • Ataxia
    • Convulsions
    • Cold, Clammy Skin
    • Cyanosis
    • Labs: Na <135; Urine SP- <1.010
  9. What body composition is water in infants?
    • 70-80%
    • 3/4 total body weight
  10. Colloids
    • Contain protein or starch molecules which remain distributed in the extracellular space and do not form a true solution
    • "Stay in the extracellular space for several days"
  11. What is the
  12. What is the treatment for Hyponatremia?
    • Restrict PO Fluids
    • Increase Dietary Sodium: salt, ham, pork, procssed/canned foods, pickles
    • Measure I/O & daily weights
  13. What are some causes of Hyperkalemia?
    • Burns
    • Transfusions
    • Medications
  14. Normal Lab Value:
    Sodium (Na)
    135-145
  15. What 2 tests indicated a positive Hypocalcemia?
    • Chvosteek's Sign: Facial Nerve
    • Trosseau's Sign: Arm & BP cuff
  16. What percent body composition is water in adults?
    • 50-60%
    • 2/3 total body weight
  17. What are the signs and symtpoms of Hyperkalemia?
    • Abdominal cramping
    • EKG Changes- Peaked T waves
    • Hypotension
    • Muscle Weakness
    • Irritability
  18. What are the treatments for mild hyperkalemia?
    • Medications (loop Diuretics)
    • Dietary Restriction
  19. Normal Lab Value:
    Potassium (K)
    3.5-5.0
  20. Normal Lab Value:
    Calcium (Ca)
    8.5-10.5
  21. Normal Lab Value:
    Chloride (Cl)
    100-106
  22. Normal Lab Value:
    Magnesium (Mg)
    1.5-2.5
  23. Normal Lab Value:
    Phosphorus
    2.5-4.5
  24. IV Solution:
    D10
    Hypertonic Solution
  25. Whats the treatment for moderate hyperkalemia?
    • Hemodialysis
    • Medications: Calcium Gluconate (IV) Sodium Bicarbonate (IV) Kayaxelate (PO)
  26. 2 Isotonic fluid types
    • Normal Saline
    • Lactated Ringers
  27. When is the use of isotonic solutions indicated?
    • Maintenance
    • Replacement/restoration of fluids
  28. What are the signs and symptoms of Hypernatremia?
    • Pitting edema
    • weight gain
    • hypertension
    • intense thirst
    • agitation
    • lethargy
    • labs: > 145
  29. what is the treatment for hypernatremia?
    • Strict I/O
    • Daily Weights **
    • Diuretics
    • Hypotonic IV solutions
  30. 2 Hypotonic fluid types
    • 1/2 NS
    • 0.33% NS
  31. 4 Hypertonic fluid types
    • D51/2NS
    • D5NS
    • D5LR
    • D10
  32. What are 2 functions of IV solutions?
    • Maintian fluid balance
    • Restore Fluid Balance
  33. Where are Isotonic Solutions found in the body after injected?
    they stay in the ECF
  34. Isotonic
    • Osmolarity is equal to blood plasma
    • "The Match"
    • Stays in the ECF
  35. What are the 3 basic types of IV solutions?
    • Isotonic
    • Hypotonic
    • Hypertonic
  36. IV Solution:
    Normal Saline
    Isotonic Solution
  37. IV Solution:
    Lactated Ringers
    Isotonic Solution
  38. IV Solution:
    1/2 NS
    Hyptonic Solution
  39. What percent body composition is water in the elderly?
    45-55%
  40. IV Solution:
    0.33% NS
    Hypotonic Solution
  41. When is an isotonic solution indicated?
    • Fluid Maintenance
    • Fluid replacement/restoration
  42. Isotonic ("The Match")
    osmolarity is equal to blood plasma
  43. What are the causes of hypokalemia?
    • starvation
    • Intestinal losses
    • Medications: corticosteroids, diuretics, certain antibiotics
  44. IV solution:
    D51/2NS
    Hypertonic Solution
  45. IV Solution:
    D5LR
    Hypertonic Solution
  46. What are some causes of hypernatremia?
    • Renal failure
    • poor perfusion
    • cirrhosis of the liver
    • dehydration
    • dibetes insipidus
    • overproduction of aldosterone
  47. what are the signs & symptoms of hypokalemia?
    • Decrease/absent DTR
    • Paralysis
    • Weakness
    • EKG Changes- Decrease in T waves
    • Orthorstatic Hypotension
  48. Factors that increase fluid needs:
    • Fever
    • Restlessness/Delirium
    • High ambient temperatures
  49. Factors that decrease fluid needs:
    • Hypothermia
    • High Humidity
    • Increased Intracranial Pressure
    • Decreased Level of Consciousness
  50. IV Solution:
    Lactated Ringers
    Isotonic Solution
  51. IV Solution:
    Ringer's Injection
    Isotonic Solution
  52. IV Solution:
    0.9% Sodium Chloride
    Isotonic Solution
  53. IV Solution:
    5% Albumin
    Isotonic Solution
  54. IV Solution:
    Hetastarch
    Isotonic Solution
  55. IV Solution:
    0.45% Sodium Chloride
    Hypotonic Solution
  56. IV Solution:
    0.33% Sodium Chloride
    Hypotonic Solution
  57. IV Solution:
    2.5% Dextrose in Water
    Hypotonic Solution
  58. IV Solution:
    5% Dextrose in 0.45% Sodium Chloride
    Hypertonic Solution
  59. IV Solution:
    5% Dextrose in 0.9% sodium chloride
    Hypertonic Solution
  60. IV Solution:
    5% Dextrose in Lactated Ringers
    Hypertonic Solution
  61. IV Solution:
    3% Sodium Chloride
    Hypertonic Solution
  62. IV Solution:
    25% Albumin
    Hypertonic Solution
  63. IV Solution:
    7.5% Sodium Chloride
    Hypertonic Solution
  64. IV Solution:
    5% Dextrose in Water (**D5W**)
    • Isotonic Solution
    • ** Acts like a hypotonic Solution**

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview