Chapter 16 The Endocrine Systme (Mastering A&P)

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lonelygirl
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Chapter 16 The Endocrine Systme (Mastering A&P)
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2013-05-03 20:23:20
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Biology Anatomy Physiology
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Biology 103A
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  1. The stimuli causing endocrine glands to secrete their hormones in direct response to changing blood levels of certain critical ions and nutrients are called

    A. neural stimuli
    B. humoral stimuli
    C. endocrinal stimuli
    D. hormonal stimuli
    B. humoral stimuli
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Which of the following adrenal gland homeostatic imbalances is characterized by persistent elevated blood glucose levels, dramatic losses in muscle and bone protein, and water and salt retention, leading to hypertension and edema?

    A. Graves' disease
    B. Cushing's syndrome
    C. cretinism
    D. Addison's disease
    B. Cushing's syndrome
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Which of the following hormones helps the body avoid dehydration and water overload?

    A. follicle-stimulating hormone
    B. thyroid-stimulating hormone
    C. oxytocin
    D. antidiuretic hormone
    D. antidiuretic hormone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which hormone is the body's major metabolic hormone?

    A. parathyroid hormone
    B. thyroid hormone
    C. adrenocorticotropic hormone
    D. antidiuretic hormone
    B. thyroid hormone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Which of the following hormones regulates blood calcium ion levels?

    A. glucagon
    B. thyroid hormone
    C. follicle-stimulating hormone
    D. parathyroid hormone
    E. luteinizing hormone
    F. insulin
    D. parathyroid hormone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which of the following pairs correctly matches the adrenal gland zone or area with the class of hormones it produces?

    A. zona fasciculata: gonadocorticoids
    B. zona reticularis: catecholamines
    C. zona glomerulosa: mineralocorticoids
    D. medulla: glucocorticoids
    C. zona glomerulosa: mineralocorticoids
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. When blood glucose levels are high, 

    A. The pancreas releases insulin.
    B. The pancreas releases glucose.
    C. The liver releases insulin.
    D. The pancreas releases glucagon.
    E. The liver releases glucagon.
    A. The pancreas releases insulin.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. A liver cell responds to insulin by

    A. Breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose.
    B. Releasing glucagon.
    C. Taking in glucose and converting it to glycogen.
    D. Releasing insulin.
    E. Taking in glucose and converting it to glucagon.
    C. Taking in glucose and converting it to glycogen.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. What cells in the body respond to glucagon by breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose?

    A. Cells in the pancreas.
    B. Intestinal cells.
    C. Liver cells and cells in the pancreas.
    D. Liver cells.
    E. Muscle cells.
    D. Liver cells.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Body cells that respond to insulin include

    A. Liver cells and muscle cells only
    B. Liver cells only.Muscle cells only.
    C. Intestinal cells only.
    D. Liver cells, as well as most other cells of the body.
    D. Liver cells, as well as most other cells of the body.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. When blood glucose levels are low,

    A. The pancreas releases insulin, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase.
    B. The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to decrease.
    C. The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase.
    D. The pancreas releases insulin, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to decrease.
    E. Liver cells convert more glucose to glycogen.
    C. the pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. The body's tendency to maintain relatively constant internal conditions is called

    A. negative feedback.
    B. homeostasis.
    C. positive feedback.
    D. diabetes.
    E. None of the above.
    B. homeostasis.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Which pancreatic hormone functions to lower blood glucose levels?

    A. gastrin
    B. glucagon
    C. insulin
    D. somatostatin
    C. insulin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Two adrenal glands make hormones that are essential for life. However, in adrenogenital syndrome, females develop a beard and a masculine pattern of body hair distribution; this occurs due to ______.

    A. increased testosterone secretion
    B. conversion of estrogens into testosterone
    C. lack of enzymes the adrenal gland needs to make cortisol and aldosterone
    D. negative feedback that inhibits estrogen production
    C. lack of enzymes the adrenal gland needs to make cortisol and aldosterone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. One can predict that a person suffering from diabetes mellitus would probably have

    A. decreased secretion of catecholamines
    B. decreased secretion of PTH (parathyroid hormone/parathormone)
    C. increased secretion of ANP (atrial natiuretic peptide)
    D. increased secretion of ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)
    D. increased secretion of ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Which of the following is NOT a property of endocrine glands?

    A. They have ducts.
    B. They produce hormones.
    C. They drain vascularly.
    D. They drain lymphatically.
    A. They have ducts.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. At what point does the receptor-hormone complex bind to DNA? Select from letters A-D.



    A
    B
    C
    D
     
    C
  18. What amino acid-based hormone uses the direct gene activation method illustrated in this image?



    A. thyroxine
    B. growth hormone
    C. mineralocorticoids
    D. glucocorticoids
    A. thyroxine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which of the following occurs in situations where more than one hormone produces the same effects at the target cell and their combined effects are amplified?

    A. synergism
    B. antagonism
    C. summation
    D. permissiveness
    A. synergism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. The hypothalamus is known to control the activity of the anterior pituitary, which has traditionally been called the "master endocrine gland." True or False
    True
  21. Which of the following hormones has intracellular receptors?

    A. epinephrine
    B. cortisol
    C. insulin
    B. cortisol
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. What is the mechanism of action of lipid-soluble hormones?

    A. activation of genes, which increases protein synthesis in the cell
    B. increasing protein kinases
    C. phosphorylation of intracellular proteins
    A. activation of genes, which increases protein synthesis in the cell
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. After a lipid-soluble hormone is bound to its intracellular receptor, what does the hormone complex do?

    A. directly alters protein synthesis at the ribosome
    B. acts as a transcription factor and binds to DNA, activating a gene
    C. activates a protein kinase
    D. phosphorylates a protein
    B. acts as a transcription factor and binds to DNA, activating a gene
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Which hormone’s receptor is always bound to DNA, even when the receptor is empty?

    A. thyroid hormone
    B. insulin
    C. cortisol
    A. thyroid hormone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. What keeps intracellular receptors from binding to DNA before a hormone binds to the receptor?

    A. transcription factors
    B. Receptors can’t enter the nucleus until the hormone is bound to it.
    C. chaperone proteins (chaperonins)
    C. chaperone proteins (chaperonins)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. What type of hormones bind to receptors located on the cell membrane?

    A. water-soluble hormones, such as insulin and epinephrine
    B. lipid-soluble hormones, such as thyroid hormones and cortisol
    A. water-soluble hormones, such as insulin and epinephrine
  27. Which intracellular substance degrades cAMP, thus inactivating the response to a hormone?

    A. protein kinase C
    B. phospholipase C
    C. phosphodiesterase
    D. adenylate cyclase
    C. phosphodiesterase
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Growth factor hormones, such as insulin, bind to which type of receptor?

    A. G proteins
    B. intracellular receptors
    C. tyrosine kinase receptors
    C. tyrosine kinase receptors
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Which is the correct order of events for hormones activating Gs proteins?

    A. activation of G protein, binding of GTP, activation of phospholipase C, activation of DAG and IP3
    B. activation of G protein, binding of GTP, activation of adenylate cyclase, conversion of ATP to cAMP
    C. activation of a G protein, tyrosine kinase receptor, phosphorylation of intracellular proteins
    B. activation of G protein, binding of GTP, activation of adenylate cyclase, conversion of ATP to cAMP
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Which second messenger causes the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum?

    A. cAMP
    B. IP3
    C. tyrosine kinase
    D. DAG
    B. IP3
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Which of the following adrenergic receptors increase cAMP levels?

    A. Alpha 1 receptors
    B. Beta receptors
    C. Alpha 2 receptors
    B. Beta receptors
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Where are oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) made? Select from letters A-D.



    A
    B
    C
    D
     
    A
  33. What hormone released into the blood (shown by letter D) by the posterior pituitary inhibits or prevents urine formation?



    A. cortisolthyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
    B. oxytocin
    C. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
     
    C. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Where are the hormones oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) stored? Select from letters A-D.



    A
    B
    C
    D
    C
  35. What gland secretes growth hormone?



    A. adrenal cortex
    B. thyroid gland
    C. anterior pituitary (lobe)
    D. posterior pituitary (lobe)
    C. anterior pituitary (lobe)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)


  36. A. aldosterone
    B. thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
    C. growth hormone (GH)
    D. thyroid hormones (TH)
    C. growth hormone (GH)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. What hormone is released by the cells pictured in letter D?



    A. parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    B. thyroid hormones
    C. glucocorticoids
    D. calcitonin
    D. calcitonin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. What cells release parathyroid hormone?



    A. follicular cells
    B. parafollicular cells
    C. parathyroid cells
    D. oxyphil cells
     
    C. parathyroid cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. What hormone, notated by letter B, is released by the anterior pituitary to target the adrenal cortex when we are under stress?



    A. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    B. atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
    C. corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
    D. angiotensin II
     
    A. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. What factor inhibits aldosterone release? Select from letters A-D.



    A
    B
    C
    D
    D
  41. Which of the following glands is found atop the kidneys?

    A. adrenal
    B. parathyroid
    C. thyroid
    D. pituitary
    A. adrenal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Which of the following hormones is a part of the rapid response (rather than the prolonged response) to stress?

    A. ADH (vasopressin)
    B. epinephrine
    C. aldosterone
    D. cortisol
    B. epinephrine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. In response to stress, which of the following changes would happen?

    A. decreased insulin secretion
    B. decreased sweating
    C. decreased or difficulty breathing
    D. decreased cardiac output
    A. decreased insulin secretion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Which of the following are symptom(s) of pheochromocytoma?

    A. low heart rate
    B. heart palpitations
    C. cool, dry skins
    D. low blood glucose
    B. heart palpitations
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Choose which condition has all of the following symptoms: hypertension, hyperglycemia, and a “moon face.”

    A. Cushing’s disease
    B. pheochromocytoma
    C. Addison’s disease
    A. Cushing’s disease
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. What hormone also aids the stress response by promoting water retention and acting as a vasoconstrictor?

    A. cortisol
    B. ADH (vasopressin)
    C. aldosterone
    D. angiotensin II
    B. ADH (vasopressin)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Hormones are long-distance chemical signals that travel in blood or lymph throughout the body. True or False
    True
  48. Thyroxine

    A. Loss of Na+ from extracellular fluids
    B. Decrease in blood Ca2+ levels
    C. High levels of blood sugar 
    D. Loss of body fluids
    E. Decrease in body metabolism
    E. Decrease in body metabolism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Parathyroid hormone

    A. Loss of Na+ from extracellular fluids
    B. Loss of body fluids
    C. Decrease in body metabolism
    D. High levels of blood sugar 
    E. Decrease in blood Ca2+ levels
    E. Decrease in blood Ca2+ levels
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Which of the following is NOT a major endocrine organ, but produces hormones in addition to its major function?

    A. Kidneys
    B. Pancreas
    C. Pituitary
    D. Thymus
    A. Kidneys
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Which of the following is the property in which a hormone CANNOT exhibit its full effect without another hormone?

    A. Synergism
    B. Assertiveness
    C. Antagonism
    D. Permissiveness
    D. Permissiveness
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Which of the following stimulates most body cells to increase in size and divide?

    A. Tropins
    B. Growth hormone
    C. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
    D. Pro-opiomelanocortin
    B. Growth hormone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Insulin

    A. High levels of blood sugar 
    B. Decrease in body metabolism
    C. Loss of Na+ from extracellular fluids
    D. Decrease in blood Ca2+ levels
    E. Loss of body fluids
    A. High levels of blood sugar 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Function of growth hormone

    A. Affects functions of the ovaries and testes
    B. Causes cells to undergo mitosis and increase in size
    C. Stimulates the production of thyroxine
    D. Increases contractions of uterine smooth muscle
    E. Causes the adrenal cortex to produce hormones
    B. Causes cells to undergo mitosis and increase in size
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Identify the element of direct gene activation by a steroid hormone indicated by "A".



    A. receptor protein
    B. steroid hormone
    C. receptor-hormone complex
    D. receptor binding region
    B. steroid hormone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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