More hormones

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Author:
ash3ach
ID:
217483
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More hormones
Updated:
2013-05-10 13:19:19
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Life 103
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Description:
Test 4
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  1. Bos taurus (cattle) are fed rBST to increase what?
    milk production
  2. The same hormone may have different effects on target cells that have what?
    • Different receptors for the hormone
    • Different signal transduction pathways
    • Different proteins for carrying out the response
    • A hormone can also have different effects in different species
  3. endocrine glands
  4. endocrine pathway
  5. negative feedback
    loop inhibits a response by reducing the initial stimulus
  6. Negative feedback regulates
    many hormonal pathways involved in homeostasis
  7. Insulin and glucagon
    are antagonistic hormones that help maintain glucose homeostasis
  8. pancreas
    islets of Langerhans
    has clusters of endocrine cells called islets of Langerhans with alpha cells that produce glucagon and beta cells that produce insulin
  9. Insulin does what to blood glucose levels?
    • reduces by
    • Promoting the cellular uptake of glucose (in most tissues except the brain)
    • Slowing glycogen breakdown in the liver
    • Promoting fat storage
  10. Glucagon does what to blood glucose levels?
    • increases by
    • Stimulating conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver
    • Stimulating breakdown of fat and protein into glucose
  11. Type I diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent)
    an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system destroys pancreatic beta cells
  12. Type II diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent)
    involves insulin deficiency or reduced response of target cells due to change in insulin receptors
  13. what 5 things can diabetes lead to?
    • Peripheral neuropathy: diabetes damages the nerves (damage can occur to the foot and not be detected)
    • Wounds: Diabetes affects circulation reducing the body’s ability to heal when damage occurs
    • Infections: Diabietes slows the body’s response to infection
    • –Antibody response is slow in type 1.
    • –Poor circulation slows
    • Nephropathy: kidney disease (affects proteins that are involved in wound healing)
    • Retinopathy: eye disease/blindness
  14. 10% of hospitalized patients are diabetic
    50% of vascular surgery patients
    By 2020 Diabetes will cost the US $500 Billion/year–Half the population is projected to be diabetic or pre-diabetic
  15. hormones and development
    • A brain hormone stimulates release of ecdysone from the prothoracic glands
    • Juvenile hormone promotes retention of larval characteristics
    • Ecdysone promotes molting (in the presence of juvenile hormone) and development (in the absence of juvenile hormone) of adult characteristics
  16. hypothalamus receives
    information from the nervous system and initiates responses through the endocrine system
  17. Attached to the hypothalamus is the pituitary gland composed of
    the posterior pituitary and anterior pituitary
  18. oxytocin
    • Oxytocin induces uterine contractions and the release of milk
    • Suckling sends a message to the hypothalamus via the nervous system to release oxytocin, which further stimulates the milk glands
    • This is an example of positive feedback, where the stimulus leads to an even greater response
  19. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    enhances water reabsorption in the kidneys
  20. tropic hormone
    regulates the function of endocrine cells or glands
  21. The four strictly tropic hormones are
    • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • Luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  22. nontropic hormones
    Nontropic hormones target nonendocrine tissues
  23. Nontropic hormones produced by the anterior pituitary are
    • –Prolactin (PRL)
    • Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
  24. prolactin
    Prolactin stimulates lactation in mammals but has diverse effects in different vertebrates
  25. MSH
    influences skin pigmentation in some vertebrates and fat metabolism in mammals
  26. Growth hormone (GH
    • secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and has tropic and nontropic actions
    • It promotes growth directly and has diverse metabolic effects
    • It stimulates production of growth factors
    • An excess of GH can cause gigantism, while a lack of GH can cause dwarfism
  27. Each adrenal gland actually consists of two glands
    the adrenal medulla (inner portion) and adrenal cortex (outer portion)
  28. the adrenal medulla secretes
    • The adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
    • These hormones are members of a class of compounds called catecholamines
  29. catecholamines
    • secreted in response to stress-activated impulses from the nervous system
    • They mediate various fight-or-flight responses
  30. Epinephrine and norepinephrine
    • –Trigger the release of glucose and fatty acids into the blood
    • Increase oxygen delivery to body cells
    • Direct blood toward heart, brain, and skeletal muscles, and away from skin, digestive system, and kidneys
  31. The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine occurs in response to nerve signals from the
    hypothalamus
  32. The gonads, testes and ovaries, produce most of the sex hormones which are?
    • androgens
    • estrogens
    • and progestins
    • All three sex hormones are found in both males and females, but in different amounts
  33. The testes primarily synthesize
    androgens, mainly testosterone, which stimulate development and maintenance of the male reproductive system
  34. Estrogens
    most importantly estradiol, are responsible for maintenance of the female reproductive system and the development of female secondary sex characteristics
  35. In mammals, progestins
    which include progesterone, are primarily involved in preparing and maintaining the uterus

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