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2013-05-05 23:25:56

4 types of leukemia's
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  1. What are the 4 major types of leukemia?
    • Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)
    • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
    • Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
    • Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)
  2. Risk factors for leukemia are?
    • •Men are affected more than women
    • •People with genetic disorders (ex Down syndrome) have a higher incidence of leukemia
    • •environmental risk factors cigarette smoke Nd chemicals)
    • •patients who have underwent treatment for cancer
    • •the human T-Cell leukemia/lymphoma virus 1 a retrovirus us known to cause certain leukemia
  3. Classification of Leukemia Acute/Chronic
    They are classified by their acuity and by the predominant cell type.

    The Acute leukemia's are characterized by their sudden onset, rapid cell progression, and immature/undifferentiated blast cells

    The Chronic leukemia's are characterized by their gradual onset, prolonged course, and abnormal mature-appearing cells
  4. Classification of Leukemia's by Lymphocytic/Myeloid
    • Lymphocytic leukemia's involve immature lymphocytes and their precursor cells in the bone marrow.
    • Lymphocytic leukemia's infiltrate the SPLEEN, LYMPHNODES, CNS and other tissues

    Myeloid leukemia's involve the myeloid stem cells in the bone marrow, interfering with the maturation of ALL types of blood cells including Granulocytes, RBC's, and Thrombocytes
  5. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
    • •Primarily affects children and young adults
    • •Most common type of leukemia in children especially age 10 and ⬇
    • •Leukemic cells may infiltrate the CNS
    • •Malignant transformation of B cells
    • •involves bone marrow, nodes, spleen and blood
    • •Onset is rapid
    • •WBC differential test will show ⬆ lymphocytes, ⬇ platelet, and ⬇ RBC's
  6. A.L.L s/s
    • •Bleeding
    • •Anemia
    • •Bone pain
    • •Lymphadenopathy 
    • •Hepatomegaly
    • •Infections/Fever
  7. A.L.L treatment
    • Induction Chemotherapy and Consolidation Chemotherapy
    • **Can go on for 1-3 years**
  8. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
    • •Is the LEAST common type of leukemia
    • •Occurs more commonly in adults (more men than women between 60-70y/o)
    • •Proliferation/accumulation of small, abnormal, mature B Lymphocytes in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, and body tissues
    • •Can be diagnosed from a blood test
    • •Can be in a mild form that they don't treat it they just watch it (years can lapse before treatment is necessary)
    • •Slow onset
    • •Related to NON-HODGKINS
  9. C.L.L s/s
    • Weakness
    • Anemia
    • Splenomegaly
    • Hepatomegaly
    • Bone marrow hyperplasia is present
  10. C.L.L treatment
    • Chemotherapy
    • bone marrow transplant 
    • biologic therapies;interferons, interleukins
  11. Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia
    Uncontrolled proliferation of myeloblasts and hyperplasia of bone marrow and spleen

    Common in oldest adults

    May affect children and hound adults

    Strongly associated with toxins, genetic disorders, and treatment from other cancers

    Death results from infections/hemorrhage

    acute onset and progresses rapidly

    80% of acute leukemia's in adults are AML
  12. AML s/s
    • Bleeding
    • Anemia
    • Bone pain
    • Lymphadenopathy
    • Hepatomegaly
    • spleenomegaly
    • recurrent infections
    • weakness
    • fever
    • ANEMIA (usually late sign not good prognosis)
  13. AML treatment
    • Chemotherapy 
    • Stem Cell Transplant
  14. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
    • •Associated with the Philadelphia Chromosome
    • •Primarily affects adults
    • •Early course slow and stable
    • •Progressing to aggressive phase in 3-4 years
    • •Can be picked up at a check up (routine blood test)
  15. CML s/s
    Similar to AML

    • Early signs: weakness, fatigue, dyspnea on exertion, poss splenomegaly, ⬇ appetite 
    • Later signs: fever, weight loss, night sweats
  16. CML treatment
    • TKI (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) this has improved prognosis, more than 90% get remission.
    • Stem Cell Transplant
    • Chemotheraphy
  17. what has best prognosis, hodgkins or non-hodgkins
  18. which hodgkins has Reed Steinberg cells
  19. what differentiates hodgkins and non hodgkins
    reed sternberg cells
  20. what luekemia is marked by epstein barr virus (mono)
  21. what cells are affected in lymphomas
    B-cells and T cells
  22. what leukemia lays dormant and has 7 year life expectancy
    Chronic lymphocyte leukemia (CLL)
  23. age range for C.L.L.
    60-70 mostly men
  24. what can help pts with Chronic myeloid leukemia go into remission
    TKI's (tyrosine kinase inhibitors)
  25. what is the most common cancer in children
    acute lymphocytic leukemia
  26. what cancers are usually dx with routine CBC
    chronic leukemias (CML and CLL)
  27. what is hyperplasia
    rapid production of cells (neoplastic cells)
  28. what chemical makes ppl more suspectible to leukemias especially AML
  29. neutropenia is catagorized by what
    low neutrophil count <1500
  30. what CA is marked by uncontrolled rapid proliferation of myeloblast and hyperplasia of bone marrow and spleen
  31. which two leukemias have worse prognosis
    AML and CML
  32. difference between CML and AML (as far as cells are concerned)
    CML involves white and red cells as well as platelets. AML involves white cells only
  33. which CA is marked by philidelphia chromosome
  34. which CA is marked by malignant transformation of B cells
  35. which CA has no identified risk factors
  36. which CA causes the enlarged spleen
    CML and AML
  37. difference in symptoms between AML and CML
    CML has increased plateles at the beginning then platelets decrease
  38. difference between CML and CLL is
    • CML has Philadelphia chromosome
    • CLL can lay dormant and doesnt always req treatment, best leukemia to have
  39. What system do they use for hodgkins and non-hodgkins and lymphoma staging
    Ann arbor staging system