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Culex pipiens (mosquito)
how many eggs are laid at one time?
- female feed before mating
- 150 to 300 eggs at a time
- St Louis Encephalitis
- West Nile Virus
creation of an offspring by fusion of a male gamete (sperm) and female gamete (egg) to form a zygote
creation of offspring without the fusion of egg and sperm
many invertebrates reproduce asexually by what?
fission, separation of a parent into two or more individuals of about the same size
new individuals arise from outgrowths of existing ones
- is breaking of the body into pieces some or all of which develop into adults
- must be accompanied by regeneration
regrowth of lost body parts
the development of a new individual from an unfertilized egg
"twofold cost" of sexual reproduction
- sexual females have half as many daughters as asexual females
- almost all eukaryotic species reproduce sexually
sexual reproduction results in what?
genetic recombination which provides potential advantages
what ate the 3 potential advantages of genetic recombination?
- an increase in variation in offspring, providing an increase in the reproductive success of parents in changing environments
- An increase in the rate of adaptation
- A shuffling of genes and the elimination of harmful genes from a population
- each individual has male and female reproductive systems
- some hermaphrodites can self-fertilize
- haploids are male
- diploids are female
- Many reptiles
- Incubation temperature of the eggs determine the sex
If isolated the individual becomes female, but if in a group it develops as a male
starting out as a female and then later becoming a male
starts as male and will change sex to a female
the union of egg and sperm
eggs shed by the female are fertilized by sperm in the external environment
sperm are deposited in or near the female reproductive tract, and fertilization occurs within the tract
the release of mature eggs at the midpoint of a female cycle
reproductive cycles are controlled by what and what?
- hormones and environmental cues
- Most animals exhibit reproductive cycles related to changing seasons
- Animals may reproduce asexually or sexually, or they may alternate these methods
Species across many phyla can reproduce by
- parthenogenesis- egg involved in fertilization but no sperm
- No known birds or mammals are parthenogenic in the wild
- Several genera of fishes, amphibians, and lizards reproduce only by a complex form of parthenogenesis that involves the doubling of chromosomes after meiosis
- Asexual whiptail lizards are descended from a sexual species, and females still exhibit mating behaviors
Komodo Dragons can produce offspring by parthogenesis
- Komodo sex determination is based on the ZW system –ZW is female, ZZ is male and WW is inviable
- Komodo females produce only males during parthenogenesis
organs that produce gametes
gametes form from what?
- Some simple systems do not have gonads, but gametes form from undifferentiated tissue
- The most complex systems contain many sets of accessory tubes and glands that carry, nourish, and protect gametes and developing embryos
- male only mates once
- Males and/or females of some species have evolved mechanisms to decrease the chance of their mate mating with another individual
in insects a female has a spermatheca in which
- sperm is stored during copulation
- Queen bees mate over a day or couple of days with multiple drones
- Sperm is stored and used for 2-7 years
- is a common opening between the external environment and the digestive, excretory, and reproductive systems
- A cloaca is common in nonmammalian vertebrates; mammals usually have a separate opening to the digestive tract
mammalian reproductive anatomy
The internal organs are a pair of gonads and a system of ducts and chambers that carry gametes and house the embryo and fetus
the ovaries lie in the
each ovary contains many what
follicles which consist of a partially developed egg, called an oocyte, surrounded by support cells
Once a month, an oocyte develops into an ovum (egg) by the process of what?
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