Animal Reproduction

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Author:
ash3ach
ID:
217491
Filename:
Animal Reproduction
Updated:
2013-05-06 12:20:13
Tags:
Life 103
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Description:
Test 4
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  1. Culex pipiens (mosquito)
    how many eggs are laid at one time?
    • female feed before mating
    • 150 to 300 eggs at a time
    • St Louis Encephalitis 
    • West Nile Virus
  2. sexual reproductionc
    creation of an offspring by fusion of a male gamete (sperm) and female gamete (egg) to form a zygote
  3. asexual reproduction
    creation of offspring without the fusion of egg and sperm
  4. many invertebrates reproduce asexually by what?
    fission, separation of a parent into two or more individuals of about the same size
  5. in budding....?
    new individuals arise from outgrowths of existing ones
  6. fragmentation
    • is breaking of the body into pieces some or all of which develop into adults
    • must be accompanied by regeneration
  7. regeneration
    regrowth of lost body parts
  8. Parthenogenesis
    the development of a new individual from an unfertilized egg
  9. "twofold cost" of sexual reproduction
    • sexual females have half as many daughters as asexual females
    • almost all eukaryotic species reproduce sexually
  10. reproductive handicap
  11. sexual reproduction results in what?
    genetic recombination which provides potential advantages
  12. what ate the 3 potential advantages of genetic recombination?
    • an increase in variation in offspring, providing an increase in the reproductive success of parents in changing environments
    • An increase in the rate of adaptation
    • A shuffling of genes and the elimination of harmful genes from a population
  13. hermaphroditism
    • each individual has male and female reproductive systems
    • some hermaphrodites can self-fertilize
  14. XX/XY
    • XX female
    • XY male
  15. XX/XO
    • XX female
    • XO male
  16. haplodiploidy
    • haploids are male
    • diploids are female
  17. ZZ/ZW
    • ZZ male
    • ZW female
  18. temperature dependent
    • Many reptiles
    • Incubation temperature of the eggs determine the sex
  19. Density dependent
    If isolated the individual becomes female, but if in a group it develops as a male
  20. protogynous hermaphrodites
    starting out as a female and then later becoming a male
  21. protandrous hermaphrodites
    starts as male and will change sex to a female
  22. fertilization
    the union of egg and sperm
  23. external fertilization
    eggs shed by the female are fertilized by sperm in the external environment
  24. internal fertilization
    sperm are deposited in or near the female reproductive tract, and fertilization occurs within the tract
  25. Ovulation
    the release of mature eggs at the midpoint of a female cycle
  26. reproductive cycles are controlled by what and what?
    • hormones and environmental cues
    • Most animals exhibit reproductive cycles related to changing seasons
    • Animals may reproduce asexually or sexually, or they may alternate these methods
  27. Species across many phyla can reproduce by
    • parthenogenesis- egg involved in fertilization but no sperm
    • No known birds or mammals are parthenogenic in the wild
  28. parthenogenisis
    • Several genera of fishes, amphibians, and lizards reproduce only by a complex form of parthenogenesis that involves the doubling of chromosomes after meiosis
    • Asexual whiptail lizards are descended from a sexual species, and females still exhibit mating behaviors
  29. Komodo Dragons can produce offspring by parthogenesis
    • Komodo sex determination is based on the ZW system –ZW is female, ZZ is male and WW is inviable
    • Komodo females produce only males during parthenogenesis
  30. gonads
    organs that produce gametes
  31. gametes form from what?
    • Some simple systems do not have gonads, but gametes form from undifferentiated tissue
    • The most complex systems contain many sets of accessory tubes and glands that carry, nourish, and protect gametes and developing embryos
  32. monogamy
    • male only mates once
    • Males and/or females of some species have evolved mechanisms to decrease the chance of their mate mating with another individual
  33. in insects a female has a spermatheca in which
    • sperm is stored during copulation
    • Queen bees mate over a day or couple of days with multiple drones
    • Sperm is stored and used for 2-7 years
  34. cloaca
    • is a common opening between the external environment and the digestive, excretory, and reproductive systems
    • A cloaca is common in nonmammalian vertebrates; mammals usually have a separate opening to the digestive tract
  35. mammalian reproductive anatomy
    The internal organs are a pair of gonads and a system of ducts and chambers that carry gametes and house the embryo and fetus
  36. the ovaries lie in the
    abdominal cavity
  37. each ovary contains many what
    follicles which consist of a partially developed egg, called an oocyte, surrounded by support cells
  38. Once a month, an oocyte develops into an ovum (egg) by the process of what?
    oogenesis

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