in most bacterial cell walls which is a polymer composed of modified sugars cross-linked by short polypeptides.
allows scientist to classify many bacterial species into two groups based on differences in cell wall composition
bacteria have simpler walls with a relatively large amount of peptidoglycan
bacteria have less peptidoglycan and are structurally more complex, with an outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides
the cell wall of many prokaryotes is surrounded by a sticky layer of polysaccharide or protein. it is the layer is dense and well defined or a slime layer it it is less well organized.
hairlike appendages that some prokaryotes stick to their substrates or to one another
appendages that pull two cells together prior to DNA transfer from one cell to the other.
a directed movement toward or away from a stimulus and about half of all prokaryotes are capable of.
a region of cytoplasm that appears lighter than the surrounding cytoplasm that appears lighter than the surrounding cytoplasm in electron micrographs
in addition to its single chromosome, a typical prokaryotic cell may also have much smaller rings of independently replicating DNA molecules
the genotype and possibly phenotype of a prokaryotic cell are altered by the uptake of foreign DNA from its surroundings.
phages carry prokaryotic genes from one host cell to another.
DNA is transferred between two prokaryotic cells (usually of the same species) that are temporarily joined.
the ability to form pili and donate DNA during conjugation results from the presence of a particular piece of DNA. The F factor can exist either as a plasmid or as a segment of DNA within the bacterial the bacterial chromosome.
The F factor in its plasmid form. Cells containing the F plasmid function as DNA donors during conjugation.
must use oxygen for cellular respiration and cannot grow without it
are poisoned by oxygen
used to extract chemical energy in which substances other than oxygen such as nitrate ions or sulfate ions accept electrons at the downhill end of electron transport chains
use oxygen if it is present but can also carry out fermentation or anaerobic respiration in an anaerobic environment
some cyanobacteria and some methanogens (a group of archaea) convert atmospheric nitrone to ammonia
carry out only nitrogen fixation.
metabolic cooperation between different prokaryotic species often occurs in surface-coating colonies
thrive in very hot environment
archaea that release methane as a byproduct of their unique ways of obtaining energy
breaking down dead organisms as well as waste products and thereby unlocking supplies of carbon, nitrogen, and other elements
an ecological relationship in which two species live in close contact with each other
an ecological interaction between two species in which both benefit example is in many cases in which a prokaryote and its host participate
are proteins secreted by certain bacteria and other organisms. the bacterium does not have to be present.
are lipopolysaccharide (carbohydrates bonded to lipids) components of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria.
the use of organisms to remove pollutants from soil
type of protist that combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition
the process in which certain unicellular organisms engulf other cells