Organic Chemistry Chapter 1

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Organic Chemistry Chapter 1
2009-12-03 15:26:17
Organic Chemistry Chapter 1

Organic Chemistry Chapter 1
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  1. chapter 1
    introduction and review
  2. acid dissociation constant
    the equilibrium constant for the reaction of the acid with water to generate H3O+ ions. Ka is equal to the concentration of the h3o ions times the concentration of the base all divided by the concentration of the acid
  3. Arrhenius acid
    dissociates in water to give H3O+ ions
  4. Arrhenius base
    dissociates in water to form OH- ions
  5. Bronsted-Lowry acid
    Proton donor
  6. Lewis acid
    electron pair acceptor electrophile
  7. Lewis base
    electron pair donor nucleophile
  8. conjugate acid
    the aid that results from protoation of a base
  9. conjugate base
    the base that results from the loss of a proton from an acid
  10. covalent bonding
    bonding that occurs by the sharing of electrons in the region between two nuclei
  11. single bond
    a covalent bond involving the sharing of one pair of electrons
  12. double bond
    a double bond involving the sharing of two pairs of electrons
  13. triple bond
    a covalent bond involving the sharing of three pairs of electrons
  14. curved arrow formalism
    a method of drawing curved arrows to keep track of electron movement from nucleophile to electrophile (or withing a molecule) during the course of a reaction
  15. degenerate orbitals
    orbitals with identical energies
  16. dipole moment
    a measure of the polarity of a bond (or a molecule), proportional to the product of the charge separation times the bond length
  17. electron density
    the relative probability of finding an electron in a certain region of space
  18. electronegativity
    a measure of an element's ability to attract electons. Elements with higher electronegativity attract electrons more strongly
  19. electrophile
    an electron pair acceptor or Lewis acid
  20. empirical formula
    ratios of atoms in a compound.
  21. formal charges
    a method for keeping track of charges
  22. Hund's rule
    When there are two or more unfilled orbitals of the same energy the lowest energy configuration places the electrons in different orbitals
  23. ionic bonding
    bonding that occurs by the attraction of oppositely charged ions.
  24. isotopes
    atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons: atoms of the smae element but with different atomic masses.
  25. Lewis structure
    a structural formula that shows all the valence electrons, with the bonds symbolized by dashes or by pairs of dots, and nonbonding electrons symbolized by dots.
  26. lone pair
    a pair of nonbonding electrons
  27. molecular formula
    the number of atoms of each element in one molecule of a compound
  28. node
    a region in an orbital with zero electron density
  29. nodal plane
    a flat region of space with zero electron density
  30. nucleophile
    an electron pair donor or lewis base
  31. octet rule
    atoms generally form bonding arrangements that give them filled shells of electrons. for the second row elements, this configuration has eight valence electrons
  32. orbital
    an allowed energy state for an electron bound to a nucleus: the probability function that defines the distribution of electron dnsity in space
  33. the pauli exclusion principle
    states that up to two electrons can occupy each orbital if their spins are paired
  34. organic chemistry
    the chemistry of carbon compounds
  35. pH
    A measure of the acidity of a solution, defined as the negative log of the H3O+ concentration
  36. Polar covalent bond
    a covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally.
  37. resonance hybrid
    a molexule or ion for which two or more valid Lewis structures canbe drawn, differing only in the placementof the valence electrons
  38. valence
    the nuber of bonds an atom usually forms
  39. valence electrons
    those electrons that are in the outermost shell
  40. vitalism
    the belief that syntheses of organic compounds require the presence of a vital force.