AP BIO Chapter 28

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AP BIO Chapter 28
2013-05-03 13:45:06
AP BIO Chapter 28

AP BIO Chapter 28
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  1. alternation of generations-
    A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants and some algae.
  2. blade-
    (1) A leaflike structure of a seaweed that provides most of the surface area for photosynthesis. (2) The flattened portion of a typical leaf.
  3. conjugation-
    (1) In prokaryotes, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined. When the two cells are members of different species, conjugation results in horizontal gene transfer. (2) In ciliates, a sexual process in which two cells exchange haploid micronuclei but do not reproduce.
  4. dinoflagellate-
    Member of a group of mostly unicellular photosynthetic algae with two flagella situated in perpendicular grooves in cellulose plates covering the cell.
  5. diplomonad-
  6. euglenid
    A protist, such as Euglena or its relatives, characterized by an anterior pocket from which one or two flagella emerge.
  7. euglenozoan
    Member of a diverse clade of flagellated protists that includes predatory heterotrophs, photosynthetic autotrophs, and pathogenic parasites.
  8. Excavata
    One of five supergroups of eukaryotes proposed in a current hypothesis of the evolutionary history of eukaryotes. Excavates have unique cytoskeletal features, and some species have an “excavated” feeding groove on one side of the cell body. See also Chromalveolata, Rhizaria, Archaeplastida, and Unikonta.
  9. foram (foraminiferan)
    An aquatic protist that secretes a hardened shell containing calcium carbonate and extends pseudopodia through pores in the shell.
  10. golden alga
    A biflagellated, photosynthetic protist named for its color, which results from its yellow and brown carotenoids.
  11. green alga
    A photosynthetic protist, named for green chloroplasts that are similar in structure and pigment composition to those of land plants. Green algae are a paraphyletic group, some of whose members are more closely related to land plants than they are to other green algae.
  12. heteromorphic
    Referring to a condition in the life cycle of plants and certain algae in which the sporophyte and gametophyte generations differ in morphology.
  13. holdfast
    A rootlike structure that anchors a seaweed.
  14. isomorphic
    Referring to alternating generations in plants and certain algae in which the sporophytes and gametophytes look alike, although they differ in chromosome number.
  15. kinetoplastid
    A protist, such as a trypanosome, that has a single large mitochondrion that houses an organized mass of DNA.
  16. mixotroph
    An organism that is capable of both photosynthesis and heterotrophy.
  17. opisthokont
    Member of the diverse clade Opisthokonta, organisms that descended from an ancestor with a posterior flagellum, including fungi, animals, and certain protists.
  18. pseudopodium
    A cellular extension of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding.
  19. radiolarian
    A protist, usually marine, with a shell generally made of silica and pseudopodia that radiate from the central body.
  20. red alga
    A photosynthetic protist, named for its color, which results from a red pigment that masks the green of chlorophyll. Most red algae are multicellular and marine.
  21. Rhizaria
    One of five supergroups of eukaryotes proposed in a current hypothesis of the evolutionary history of eukaryotes; a morphologically diverse protist clade that is defined by DNA similarities. See also Excavata, Chromalveolata, Archaeplastida, and Unikonta.
  22. secondary endosymbiosis
    A process in eukaryotic evolution in which a heterotrophic eukaryotic cell engulfed a photosynthetic eukaryotic cell, which survived in a symbiotic relationship inside the heterotrophic cell.
  23. stipe
    A stemlike structure of a seaweed.
  24. stramenopile
    A protist in which a “hairy” flagellum (one covered with fine, hairlike projections) is paired with a shorter, smooth flagellum.
  25. thallus
    The study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter. See first law of thermodynamics; second law of thermodynamics.
  26. Unikonta
    One of five supergroups of eukaryotes proposed in a current hypothesis of the evolutionary history of eukaryotes. This clade, which is supported by studies of myosin proteins and DNA, consists of amoebozoans and opisthokonts. See also Excavata, Chromalveolata, Rhizaria, and Archaeplastida.