AP BIO chapter 35

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AP BIO chapter 35
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2013-05-03 13:56:15
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AP BIO chapter 35
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  1. tissue-
    a group of cells, consisting of one or more cell types, that together perform a specialized function.
  2. organ-
    consists of several types of tissues that together carry out particular functions.
  3. photosynthates-
    the sugars and other carbohydrates produced during photosynthesis
  4. root-
    is an organ that anchors a vascular plant in the soil absorbs minerals and water, often stores carbohydrates
  5. taproot system-
    in most eudicots and gymnosperms consisting of one main vertical root, the taproot, which develops from an embryonic root. The taproot gives rise to the later roots, also called branch roots. Taproot systems generally penetrate deeply and are therefore well adapted to deep soils, where the groundwater is not close to the surface.
  6. fibrous root system-
    a mat generally thin roots spreading out below the soil surface. usually do not penetrate deeply and are therefore best adapted to shallow soils or regions where rainfall is light and does not moisten the soil much below the surface layer.
  7. root hairs-
    Although the entire root system helps anchor a plant, in most plants the absorption of water and minerals occurs primarily near the tips of roots, where vast numbers of root hairs emerge and increase the surface area of the root enormously. A root hair is a thin, tubular extension of a root epidermal cell.
  8. stem-
    an organ that raises or separates leaves, exposing them to sunlight.
  9. nodes-
    the points at which leaves are attached.
  10. internodes-
    the stem segments between nodes
  11. axillary bud-
    in the upper angle (axil) formed by each leaf and the stem, a structure that can form a lateral shoot, commonly called a branch.
  12. leaf-
    in most vascular plants it is the main photosynthetic organ, although green stems also perform photosynthesis.
  13. Tissue system-
    a functional unit connecting all of the plants organs
  14. dermal tissue system-
    is the plants outer protective covering
  15. epidermis-
    a layer of tightly packed cells
  16. cuticle-
    a waxy coating on the epidermal surface that helps prevent water loss.
  17. periderm-
    woody plants, replace the epidermis in older regions of stems and roots
  18. Trichomes-
    hairlike outgrowths of the shoot epidermis, reduce water loss and reflect excess light, but must important function is to provide defense against insects by forming a barrier or by secreting sticky fluids or toxic compounds.
  19. vascular tissue system-
    carries out long-distance transport of materials between the root and shoot system.
  20. Xylem-
    conducts water and dissolved minerals upward from roots into the shoots
  21. Phloem-
    transports sugars, the products of PHOTO from where they are made (usually in the leaves) to where they are needed- usually roots and sites of growth, such as developing leaves and fruits.
  22. Parenchyma cells-
    perform most of the metabolic functions of the plant, synthesizing and storing various organic products.
  23. Collenchyma cells-
    helps support young parts of the plant shoot, provide flexible support without restraining growth.
  24. Sclerenchyma cells-
    also function as supporting elements in the plant, but are much more rigid than collenchyma cells.
  25. Sclereids-
    lignified secondary walls, impart the hardness to nutshells and seed coats and the gritty texture to the pear fruits.
  26. Fibers-
    usually grouped in strands, are long, slender, and tapered.
  27. Tracheids-
    are long thin cells with tapered ends. Water moves from cell to cell mainly through the pits, where it does not have to cross thick secondary walls
  28. Vessel elements-
    generally wider, shorter, thinner walled, and less tapered than tracheids. They are aligned end to end, forming long micropipes known as vessels. The end walls of vessel elements have perforation plates that enable water to flow freely though the vessels.
  29. Sieve-tube elements-
    consist of chains of cells in the phloem of angiosperms these nutrients are transported through sieve tubes
  30. indeterminate growth-
    major difference between plants and most animals is that plant growth is not limited to an embryonic or juvenile period. Instead growth occurs throughout the plants life
  31. determinate growth-
    done by most animals and some plants- such as leaves, thorns, and flowers- where they stop growing after reaching a certain size.
  32. Meristems-
    Plants are capable of indeterminate growth because they have perpetually undifferentiated tissues called meristems that divid when conditions permit, leading to new cells that can elongate.
  33. Apical meristems-
    located at the tips of roots and shoots and in axillary buds of shoots, provide additional cells that enable growth in length, a process known as primary growth.
  34. vascular cambium-
    adds layers of vascular tissues called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem.
  35. cork cambium-
    replaces the epidermis with the thicker tougher periderm.
  36. root cap-
    covers the tip of the root, which protects the delicate apical meristem as the root pushes through the abrasive soil during primary growth
  37. zone of cell division-
    includes the root apical meristem and its derivatives.
  38. zone of elongation-
    typically a few millimeters behind the tip of the root, where most of the growth occurs as root cells elongate.
  39. zone of differentiation (zone of maturation)-
    cells complete their differentiation and become distinct cell types.
  40. Endodermis-
    the innermost layer of the cortex which is a cylinder on cell thick that forms the boundary with the vascular cylinder.
  41. pericycle-
    where the larger roots arise from, it is the outermost cell layer in the vascular cylinder, which is adjacent to and just inside the endodermis.
  42. leaf primordia-
    where leaves develop, it is a finger-like projections along the sides of the apical meristem
  43. stomata-
    in the epidermis of the leaf, it allows exchange of CO2 and O2 between the surrounding air and the photosynthetic cells inside the leaf.
  44. guard cells-
    which regulate the opening and closing of the pore.
  45. lenticels-
    dotting the periderm are small raised areas in which there is more space between cork cells enabling living cells within a woody stem or root to exchange gases with the outside air.
  46. bark-
    includes all tissues external to the vascular cambium
  47. development-
    • the specific series of changes by which cells form tissues, organs, and
    • organisms
  48. developmental plasticity-
    the ability to alter form in response to local environmental conditions
  49. Growth-
    is an irreversible increase in size
  50. Morphogenesis-
    is the process that gives a tissue, organ, or organism its shape and determines the positions or cell types.
  51. Differentiation-
    is the process by which cells with the same genes become different from one another
  52. preprophase band-
    Microtubules in the cytoplasm become concentrated into a ring
  53. Asymmetrical cell division-
    in which one daughter cell receives more cytoplasm than the other during mitosis
  54. polarity-
    the condition of having structural or chemical differences at opposite ends of the organism
  55. phase changes-
    the morphological changes that arise from these transitions in shoot apical meristem activity
  56. ABC hypothesis-
    proposes that three classes of genes direct the formation of the four types of floral organs. each class of organ identity genes is switched on in teo specific whorls of the floral meristem
  57. morphology-
    a branch of biology that deals with the form and structure of animals and plants

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