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What is the view of human nature in Behavior?
- behavior is determined by environment
- useless to rate humans as "good" or "bad"
- focus on behavioral descriptions of people rather than trait descriptions
- do not see thoughts and feelings as determinants of behavior, instead see only the environment as critical.
- Humans are motivated to adapt to the environment
What are the central constructs of Behavioral?
- major models of learning- operant conditioning, classical conditions, and observational
- Behavior serves to obtain things that help us survive, things that become valuable to us, or reinforcing, and to move us away from behavior that don't promote survival
What are the goals in Behavioral?
- reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior and teach or increase the incidence of adaptive responses
- don't try to delete behavior, but try and prescribe behavior...
What is the role of assessment in Behavioral therapy?
- very important, scientific process that focuses on "what client does, rather than the traits the client has"
- both formal and informal, but NOT personality assessment or looking for cause
- assessment is linked closely to intervention, focuses on the current behavior, paying attention to consequences and antecedents
- observations are most "theoretically pure" assessments
What is the role of the counselor in Behavioral?
- model for client
- consultant who is teaching client necessary skills to be own therapist
- active and directive
What is the role of the client in Behavioral?
- NOT a patient
- expected to contribute actively
- complete homework faithfully
- learner of info presented by counselor
What is the nature of the relationship in Behavioral?
- "clinical interaction constitutes a form of experiment"
- most contemporary BT see a good relationship as important
What techniques are used in Behavioral?
- Relaxation training
- exposure therapy
- systematic desensitization
- aversive techniques
- "blow-up" or paradoxical intention- clients actively practice and elaborate on their symptoms
- shaping- process of teaching a new behavior
- punishment-consequences are linked to a decrease of behavior
- assertiveness training
- stimulus control
- covert conditioning
What happens in Behavioral therapy?
- 2 phases- assessment and intervention
- 1st session is critical- 4 goals- rapport, choose target behavior, gather data, educate the client about behavioral approach
- create a written contract
- "client is never wrong"
Evaluation of Behavioral
Strengths and Weaknesses
Strengths- received support from outcome research
- Weaknesses- cold hearted b/c of scientific approach and language, denies rights and freedoms of clients, ignores the importance of emotion, too simplistic
- emphasis on observable behavior at the expense of thought and feeling
- neglect of client's past
What are applications for Behavioral?
works best on narrowly defined problems, such as phobias