NBDE review

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NBDE review
2010-06-03 15:31:00
Biochem Physiology

Additional Biochem and Physiology from dental decks
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  1. Lactose, Maltose, glucose, galactose and fructose are these kinds of sugars because
    Reducing, they contain a free anomeric carbon
  2. GAG found in synovial fluid, vitreous humor, ECM of LCT
    hyaluronate, large polymers and shock absorbing
  3. GAG found in cartilage, bone and heart valves
    Chondroitin sulfate, most abundant GAG
  4. GAG found in basement membrane, components of cell surfaces
    heparin sulfate, contains higher acetylated glucosamine than heparin
  5. GAG found in intracellular granules of mast cells lining the arteries of teh lungs, liver and skin
    Heparin, also serves as anticoagulant, more sulfated than heparin sulfate
  6. GAG found in skin, blood vessels and heart valves
    dermantan sulfate
  7. GAG found in cornea, bone, cartilage aggragated with chondroitin sulfates
    keratin sulfate, most heterogenous GAG
  8. glucose + glucose
  9. glucose + galactose
  10. glucose + fructose
  11. This type of cell absorbs monosaccharides
  12. large insoluble carbohydrate thats an important plant energy source comprised of amylose(unbranched) and amylopectin(branched)
  13. Highly branched polymer of glucose that is especially abundant in the liver
    glycogen, which can be cleaved by glucan transferase
  14. common organic earth compound that is not digestible by humans and is often referred to as dietary fiber
  15. This is a polysaccharide of glucose produced extracellularly bacteria and yeast.
    Dextrans; notable bacteria = strep mutans
  16. This is stored intracellularly as reserve nutrients, and increases the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces of teeth and promote the formation of dental plaque
    levans, formed from fructose and side product of dextran production
  17. structure that covers the from of the eye, bends light, and does not change shape
  18. crystalline lens that focuses light, "fine-tunes" vision, this can become cloudy=cataract
  19. opening in the middle of the iris
  20. functions as the shutter of the eye allowing light in and contains the color
  21. thin layer of nerve tissue that senses light, made of rods and cones
  22. densely packed nerve cells where focus of object or regard
  23. Constriction of the pupil of the eye
  24. prolonged abnormal dilation of the pupil induced by drug or disease
  25. far objects are focuses at a point in front of the retina, cornea is steeper or eye is longer
    myopia, nearsightedness
  26. treatment for myopia
    concave lens
  27. light focuses behind the retina, flatter cornea or shorter eye
    hyperopia, farsightedness
  28. How do you treat farsightedness?
    convex lens
  29. curvature of lens is not uniform
    astigmatism; treat with cylindric lenses
  30. inability of the eye to focus sharply on nearby objects because of loss of elasticity of lents with advancing age
    presbyopia, treat with bifocals
  31. Abnormal type of hemoglobin, lysine is replaced with glutamic acid causing reduced plasticity of RBCs
    Hemoglobin C
  32. Abnormal hemoglobin with four beta chains, usually associated with a defect in three of four alpha chain genes resulting in alpha-thalassemia
    hemoglobin H
  33. Abnormal hemoglobin where valine has replaced glutamic acid in beta chain, sickle shape
    hemoglobin S
  34. abnormal hemoglobin with single AA substitution favors formation methemoglobin and is associated with methemoglobinemia
    Hemoglobin M
  35. Hormones activated by foodstuffs entering the duodenum
    CCK, Secretin, gastric inhibitory peptide(GIP)
  36. Reflex of the enteric nervous system?
    enterogastric reflex triggered by distention of the sm intestine, adn chemical and osmotic irritation of mucosa, inhibitory impulse
  37. most common lipid storage disease caused by a deficiency of enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Fatty material will collect and cause the spleen and liver to enlarge, liver malfunction, skeletal disorders, bone lesion that may cause pain, severe neurological comp, lymph node swelling, anemia, yellow spots in eyes. Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry
    Gaucher disease
  38. autosomal recessive disorder caused by accumulation of fat and cholesterol in liver, spleen, bone marrow, lungs, and brain. Ataxia, eye paralysis, brain degeneration, learning problems, spasticity, feeding and swallowing difficulties. Deficiency of sphingomyelinase and ashkenazi jewish ancestry.
    Niemann-Pick disease
  39. rare inherited disease, progressive destruction of brain and spinal cord nerve cells. Deficiency in beta-hexosaminidase A and accumulation of GM2 gangliosides. jewish ancestry, CNS degeneration, die by 5
    Tay-sachs disease
  40. autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of galactosylceramidase
    Krabbe disease
  41. alpha-galactosidase A deficiency disease, build up of fatty material in ANS, eyes, kidneys, and cardiovascular system
    Fabry disease
  42. Symptoms:
    Goiter, thickened nails that lift off the nail beds, myxedema, clubbing, exophthalmos
    Grave's disease- type of hyperthyroidsim

    • myxedema=lumpy reddish thick skin on front of shins and sometimes the top of feet
    • exopthalmos= bulging eyes
  43. autoimmune reaction to the adrenal cortex with weight loss, muscle weakness, fatigue, Low BP, darkening of skin.
    Addisons disease, adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol and sometimes aldosterone
  44. Disorder failure to produce ADH or in rare cases for the kidney to respond to ADH. Increased urination and thirst and pale urine
    diabetes insipidus
  45. This molecule unwinds the helix
  46. this molecule is responsible for unwinding supercoiled DNA to allow DNA polymerase access to replicate the genetic code
  47. this enzyme re-forms the supercoiled structure once the replication fork has passed
    DNA gyrase
  48. Pyrimidine bases
    • DNA- T and C
    • RNA- U and C

    CUT down the pyramids
  49. Purine bases
    A and G
  50. Glycolysis rate-limiting step?
    PFK, phosphofructokinase, catalyzes phosphate from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate
  51. Aldolytic reaction of glycolysis
    Aldolase converts fructose-1,6-biphosphate to two 3-carbon metabolites
  52. Where does glycolysis occur and what are the major points?
    Cytoplasm, absence of oxygen

    Needs 2 ATP to start

    End product is pyruvate, two molecules of NADH+ H+ are reduced, and four molecules of ATP via substrate phosphorylation so there is a Net gain of 2

    Pyruvate has two fates: aerobic respiration in mitochondria or fermentation(anaerobic respiration)
  53. Which amino acids are not transaminated?
    lysine, serine, threonine