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2013-05-04 15:32:53
AP Environmental science

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  1. nonliving things
  2. any compound that releases hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Also a water solution that contains a surplus amount of hydrogen ions
  3. enormous bodies of air that move as a unit
    air mass
  4. a soil horizon below the O horizon thats formed of weathered rock, with some organic material, aka topsoil
    A horizon
  5. a basic structure; chemically a substance that absorbs hydrogen ions or releases hydroxide ions; a measure of the base content of water
  6. land thats fit to be cultivated
  7. the part if the mantle that lies just below the lithosphere
  8. the gaseous mass or envelop surrounding a celestial body-the one around earth is retained by the celestial body's gravitational field
  9. a long, relatively narrow island running parallel to the mainland, built up by the zion of waves and currents and serving to protect the coast from erosion by surf and tidal surges
    barrier island
  10. living or derived from living things
  11. a soil horizon that receives the minerals and organic material that are leeched out of the A horizon
    B horizon
  12. a soil horizon that is are up of larger pieces of rock that haven't undergone much weathering.
    C Horizon
  13. the finest soil, ,are up of particles that are less then .002 mm in diameter
  14. the transmission or conveying of something through a medium or passage, especially the transmission of electrical charge or heat through a conducting medium without perceptible motion of the medium itself
  15. the vertical movement of a mass of matter because of heating and cooling; this can happen in both the atmosphere and Earth's mantle
  16. air currents caused by the vertical movement of air due to atmospheric heating and cooling
    convection currents
  17. a plate boundary where two plates are moving toward each other
    convergent boundary
  18. the observed effect of the Coriolis force, especially the deflection of an object moving above the earth, rightward in the northern hemisphere and leftward in the southern hemisphere as away from the equator
    Coriolis effect
  19. a usually triangular alluvia deposit at the mouth of the river
  20. a plate boundary at which plates are moving away from each other. This causes an upwelling of magma from the mantle to cool and form new crust
    divergent boundary
  21. a region of the ocean near the equator, characterized by calms, light winds, or squalls
  22. a climate variation that takes place in the tropical pacific about every three to seven years, for a duration of about a year
    El niño
  23. the part of the wide lower course of a river where its current is met by the tides
  24. the place where two tectonic plates abut each other
  25. the tome after the indrustial revolution when farming became mechanized and crop yields in industrialized nations boomed as farmers began using large amounts of chemical fertilizers and pesticides
    Green Revolution
  26. the phenomenon whereby the earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation, caused by the presence in the atmosphere of gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane that allow incoming sunlight to pass throughout but absorb heat radiated back from the earth's surface
    greenhouse effect
  27. a system of vertical and horizontal air circulation that creates major weather patterns, predominately in tropical and subtropical
    Hadley Cell
  28. the water from which a river rises
  29. the dark, crumbly, nutrient rich material that results from the decomposition of organic material, which is also a product of composting organic waste
  30. the delivery rate of solar radiation per unit of horizontal surface
  31. a high-speed, meandering wind current, generally moving from a westerly direction at speed often exceeding 400 km (250miles) per hour at altitudes of 15 to 25 km (10 to 15 miles)
    jet stream
  32. deterioration of land quality, usually caused by its exploitation
    land degradation
  33. a cooling of the ocean surface off the western coast of south america, occurring periodically every 4 to 12 years and affecting Pacific and other weather patterns
    La Niña
  34. the outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle approximately 100 km
  35. soil composed of a mixture of sand, clay, silt, and organic material
  36. the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
  37. a wind system that influences large climatic regions and reverses direction seasonally
  38. the uppermost horizon of soil, made up of organic material.
    O Horizon
  39. when water rights are given to those who have historically used the water in a certain area
    prior appropriation
  40. a bloom of dinoflagellates that causes reddish discoloration of costal ocean waters. Certain dinoflagellates of the genus gonyamlax produce toxins that kill fish and contaminate shell fish
    red tide
  41. The bedrock, which lies below all of the other layers of soil
    R Horizon
  42. the right as to fishing or to the use of a riverbed, of one who owns riparian land (the land adjacent to a river or stream)
    riparian right
  43. occurs when soil becomes waterlogged from excess irrigation and then dries out. As the water evaporates, the salt crystalizes and forms a layer on the soil surface, preventing the growth of plants
  44. the coarest soil with particles .05-2mm in diameter
  45. soil with particles .0002-.05mm in diameter
  46. the atmospheric pressure conditions corresponding to the periodic warming of el nino and the cooling of la nina
    southern oscillation
  47. in tectonic plates, the sure at which an oceanic plate is sliding under a continental plate
    subduction zone
  48. a layer in a larger body of water that sharply separates regions differing in temperature, so that the temperature gradient across the layer is abrupt
  49. the outermost shell of the atmosphere, between the mesosphere and outer space, where temperatures increase steadily with altitude
  50. the A horizon of soil is ofter reffered to as this, its the most important thing for plant growth
  51. boundaries at which plates are moving past each other, sideways
    transform boundary
  52. a cyclonic storm having winds ranging from approximately 48 to 121 km per hour
    tropical storm
  53. a process in which cold, often nutrient rich waters from the ocean depths rise to the surface
  54. when the size of an organisms natural habitat is reduces or when development occurs that isolates a habitat
    habitat fragmentation
  55. specs that originate and live or occur natural in an area or environment
    indigenous species
  56. matter can't be created or destroyed
    law of conservation of matter
  57. the amount of energy that plants pass on to the community of herbivores in an ecosystem
    net primary production
  58. the process un which soil bacteria convert ammonium to a form that can be used by plants, either nitrate or no3
  59. the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen unto compounds such as ammonia by natural agencies or various industrial processes
    nitrogen fixation
  60. organisms that consume both producers and primary consumers
  61. the process in green plants and certain other organisms by which carbohydrates are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water using light as an energy source
  62. organisms in the first staff of succession
    pioneer species
  63. a group of organisms of the same species that live in the same area
  64. when ecological succession begins in a virtually lifeless area
    primary succession
  65. when a species occupies a smaller niche than it would be in the absence of competition
    realized niche
  66. a place where a large quantity of a resource sits for a long period of time
  67. the amount of time a resource spends in a reservoir or an exchange pool
    residency time
  68. organisms that are capable of breeding with oe another and incapable of breeding with other species
  69. organisms that consume secondary consumers or other tertiary consumers
    tertiary consumers
  70. the act or process or transpiring, or releasing water vapor, especially through that stomata of plant tissue or the pores of the skin
  71. the region draining into a river system or other body of water
  72. countries that have a renewable annual water supply of less than 100m3 per person
    water- scarce
  73. countries that have a rewneable annual water supple that of about 1,00- 2,00 m3 per person
  74. the production of ammonia or ammonium compounds in the decomposition of organic material, especially thought the action of bacteria
  75. the process in which plants absorb ammonium, ammoia ions, and nitrate ions through their roots
  76. produces; organisms that can prouduce their own organic compounds from inorganic compounds.nThey use energy from the sun or from the oxidant of inorganic substances
  77. the accumulation of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in various tissues of a living organism
  78. the process by which the concentration of toxic substances increases in each successive link in the food chain
  79. the part of the earth and its atmosphere where living organisms exists or that id capable of supporting life
  80. an organism that obtains its nourishment through the oxidation of inorganic chemical compounds as opposed to photosynthesis
  81. a stable, mature community in a successive series that has reached equilibrium after having evolves through stages and adapted to its environment
    climax community
  82. a few individuals exists but the effort needed to locate and harvest them isn't worth the expense
    commercial or economic extinction
  83. formed from populations of different species occupying the same geographic area
  84. the process that occurs when 2 different species in a region compete and the better adapted species wins
    competitive exclusion
  85. the process by which specialized bacteria convert ammonia to no3, no2, and n2 and release it back to the atmosphere
  86. organisms that derive energy from consuming nonliving organic material
  87. there are so few individuals of a species that this species can no longer perform its ecological function
    ecological extinction
  88. transition in species composition of a biologic, community often following ecological disturbance of the community; the establishment of a biological community in any are virtually barren of life
    ecological succession
  89. the condition in which, at the ecosystem boundaries, there is a greater species diversity and density then there is in the heart of the ecological communities.
    edge effect
  90. the structure obtained if we organize the amount of energy contained in producers and consumers in an ecosystem, by kilocalories per square meter, from largest to smallest
    energy pyramid
  91. change in the genetic composition of a population during successive generations as result of natural selection acting on the genetic variation among individuals and resulting in the development of new species
  92. a succession of organisms in an ecological community that constitutes a continuation of ford energy from one organism to another as each consumes a lower member and in turn is preyed upon by a higher member.
    food chain
  93. a complex of interrelated food chains in an ecological community
    food web
  94. states that no 2 species can occupy the same niche at the same time, and that the species that is less fit to live in the environment will either relocate, die out, or occupy a smaller niche
    gauses principle
  95. the amount of sugar that the plants produce in photosynthesis and subtracting from it the amount of energy the plants need for growthm maintenance, repair, and reproduction
    gross primary productivity
  96. begins with the very shallow water at the shoreline. Plants and animals that reside in the littoral zone receive abundant sunlight. The end of this zone is defined as the depth at which rooted plants stop growing
    littoral zone
  97. surface of open water; the region that extends to the depth that sunlight can penetrate. Organisms that are residents in this zone are short-lived and rely on sunlight to carry out photosynthesis
    limnetic zone
  98. water that is too deep for sunlight to penetrate. Because the profundal zone is an aphasic zone ( a zone that light cannot reach) photosynthesizing plants and animals cannot live in this region
    profundal zone
  99. the deepest layer in a body of water; characterized by very low temperatures and low oxygen levels
    benthic zone
  100. the fraction of solar energy that is reflected back into space
  101. the amount that the population would grow if there were unlimited resources in its environment
    biotic potential
  102. a model thats used to predict population trends based on the birth and death rates as well as economic status of a population
    demographic transition model
  103. the amount of the earths surface thats required to supply the needs of and dispose of the waste from a particular population
    ecological footprint
  104. the random fluctuations in the frequency of the appearance of a gene in a small isolated population, presumably owing to chance rather than natural selection
    genetic drift
  105. when a population is well below the size dictated by the carrying capacity of its region, it will grow exponentially, but as it approaches the carrying capacity, its growth rate will decrease and the side of the population will eventual become stable
    logistic population growth
  106. the number of individuals of a population that inhabit a certain unit of and or water area
    population density
  107. when tress and crops are planted together, creating a mutualistic symbiotic relationship between them
  108. the raising of fish and other aquatic species in captivity for harvest
  109. fish production in which fish are caught in the wild and not raised in captivity for consumption
    capture fisheries
  110. the management or regulation of a resource so that its use does not exceed the capacity of the resource to regenerate itself
  111. a process in which rows of crops are plowed across the hillside; this prevents the erosion that can occur when rows are cut up and down on a slope
    contour plowing
  112. the value of natural resources
    ecosystem capital
  113. open or forested area built at the outer edge of a city
  114. smoldering fires that take place in bogs or swamps and can burn undergrounds for days or weeks. difficult to detect or extinguish
    ground fires
  115. a forest that has never been cut or seriously disturbed for several hundred years
    old growth forests
  116. the maintenance of a specs or ecosystem in order to ensure its perpetuation, with no concern as to their potent ion monetary value
  117. area where cutting has occurred and a new, younger forest as arisen
    second growth forests
  118. the management of forest plantations for the purpose of harvesting timber
  119. fires that typically burn only the forests underbrush and do little damage to mature trees. These fires actually serve to protect the forest from more harmful fires by removing underbrush and dead materials that would burn quickly at high temperatures
    surface fires
  120. the use of devices to collect, focus, transport, or store energy
    active collection
  121. almost pure carbon, this is the cleanest burning coal
  122. the unit used to describe the volume of fossil fuels
  123. the second purest form of coal
  124. a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus splits into fragments, usually 2 of comparable mass, releasing from 100 million to several hundred million electron volts of energy
  125. energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only transferred and transformed
    First law of thermodynamics
  126. a waste product by the burning of coal
    fly ash
  127. n influential theory that concerns the long-term rate of conventional oil (and other fossil fuel) extraction and depletion. It predicts that the future world oil production will soon reach a peak and then rapidly decline
    Hubbert peak aka peak oil
  128. the energy of motion
    kinetic energy
  129. the least pure coal
  130. the process of using 2 nuclei
    nuclear fussion
  131. the rocks and earth that removed when strip mining for a commercially valuable mineral resource
  132. oil, a hydrocarbon that forms as sediments are buried and pressurized
  133. a semiconductor device that converts the energy of sunlight into electric energy
    photovoltaic cell (PV cell)
  134. energy at rest or stored energy
    potential energy
  135. an estimate of the amount of fossil fuel that can be obtained from reserve
    proven resource
  136. sunlight
    radiant energy
  137. devices containing alkaline substances that precipitate out much of sulfur dioxide from industrial plants air effluent
  138. the disorder of the universe is increasing. one corollary is the concept that in most energy transformations, a significant fraction of energy is lost to the universe as heat
    second law of thermodynamics
  139. the removal of the earth surface all the way down to the level of the mineral seam
    strip mining
  140. the third purest form of coal
  141. the sinking of shafts to reach underground deposits. Networks of tunnels are dug pr blasted and humans enter these tunnels in order to manually retrieve the coal
    underground mining
  142. a platinum coated device that oxidizes most of the VOCs and some of the CO that would otherwise be emitted un exhaust, converting them to CO2
    catalytic converter
  143. when materials such as plastic or aluminum are used to rebuild the same product.
    closed - loop recycling
  144. the process that allow the organic material in solos waster to be decomposed and reintroduced into the soil, often as fertilizer
  145. when the signs and symptoms of an illness can be attributed to a specify infectious organism that resides in the building
    building- related illness
  146. an effect that results from long term exposure to low levels of toxin
    chronic effect
  147. drilling a hole in the ground that below the water table to hold waste
    deep well injection
  148. occurs when infection causes a change in the state of health
  149. a process in which on organism is exposed to a toxin at different concentrations, and the dosage that causes the death of an organism.
    dose- response analysis
  150. the result of graphing a dose- response analysis
    dose- response curve
  151. the point at which 50% of the test orgaisms show a negative effect from a toxin
  152. an intensification of the Greenhouse Effect due to the increased presence of heat trapping gases in the atmosphere
    global warming
  153. smog resulting from emissions of industry and other sources of gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels, especially coal
    gray smog (industrial smog)
  154. any waste that poses a danger to human health; it must be dealt with in a different way from other types of waste
    hazardous waste
  155. urban areas that heat up more quickly and retain heat better than non urban area
    heat islands
  156. radioactive wastes that produce high levels on ionizing radiation
    high- level radioactive waste
  157. the result of a pathogen invading a body
  158. the point at which 50% of the test organisms die from a toxin
  159. the liquid that percolates to the bottom of a landfill
  160. radioactive wastes that produce low levels of ionizing radiation
    low-level radioactive waste
  161. when materials are reused to form new products
    open-loop rcycling
  162. the thinning of the ozone layer or antartica
    ozone holes
  163. bacteria, virus, or other microorganisms that can cause disease
  164. usually formed on hot sunny days when no NOx compounds, VOCs, and ozone combine to form smog with a brownish hue
    photochemical smog
  165. any substance that has and LD50 of 50 mg or less per kg of body weight
  166. in a sewage treatment plant, the initial filtration that is done to remove debris such as stones, sticks, rags, etc that were flushed
    physical treatment
  167. pollutants that are real eased directly into the lower atmosphere
    primary pollutants
  168. when physically treated sewage water is passed into a settling tank where suspended soils settle out as sludge; chemically treated polymers may be added to help suspended solids separate and settle out
    primary treatment
  169. calculating risk, or th degree of likelihood that a person will become ill upon exposure to a toxin or pathogen
    risk management
  170. pollutants that are formed by the combination of primary pollutants in the atmosphere
    secondary pollutants
  171. the biological treatment of wastewater in order to continues to remove biodegradable waste
    secondary treatment
  172. a condition in which the majority of a buildings occupants experience certain symptoms that vary with the amount of time spent in the building, without being able to identify a specified cause or illness
    sick building syndrome
  173. the solids that remain after the secondary treatment of sewage
  174. a tan filled with aerobic bacteria thats used to treat sewage
    sludge processor
  175. can consist of hazardous waste, industrial solid waste, or municipal waste. Many types of solid waste provide a threat to human health and the environment
    solid waste
  176. a program funded by the federal government and a trust thats funded by taxes on the chemicals; identifies pollutants and cleans ip hazardous waste sites
    Superfund Program
  177. the dosage level of a toxin at which a negative effect occurs
    threshold dose
  178. the degree to which a substance is biologically harmful
  179. any substance that is inhaled, ingested, or absorbed at dosages suffienct to damage a living organism
  180. ozone that exists in the troposphere
    tropospheric ozone
  181. gave the EPA power to set emission standards for major sources of noise including transpiration, machinery, and construction
    U.S Noise Control Act
  182. the carrier organism through which pathogens can attack, such as a tick
  183. any water that has been used by humans
    waste water
  184. when everyday released from waste incineration is used to generate electricity
    wate- to - energy program
  185. a fiscal policy that lower taxes on income, including wages and profit, and raises taxes on consumption, particually the unsustainable consumption of non-rewnable resources
    green tax
  186. when companies are allowed to buy permits that allow them a certain amount of discharge substances into certain environmental outlets. If they can reduce their amount of discharge, they are allowed to sell the remaining portion of their permit to another company
    market permits