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  1. Mitosis
    cellular division of somatic cells for repair and growth
  2. Meiosis
    • cellular division necessary for sexual reproduction
    • produces gametes (egg and sperms)
  3. Histone
    basic protein molecule that composes chromatins
  4. DNA
    • double-helix genetic code
    • monomer: nucleotide
  5. Gene
    produces protein molecules
  6. Interphase
    • longest 
    • DNA replication takes place
  7. G1
    doubles organelles and accumulates materials that will be used for DNA replication
  8. S
    DNA synthesis (twice the genetic material: two sister chromatids)
  9. G2
    completion of DNA replication to the onset of mitosis
  10. G0
    remains in the interphase and cell division is permanently arrested
  11. Prophase
    • nucleus disappears
    • spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes
  12. Anaphase
    • shortest
    • chromatins split apart (separation of chromosomes)
  13. Metaphase
    chromosomes are aligned at the spindle equator
  14. Telophase
    • Nucleus reappears
    • Two nuclei are present
    • Cytokinesis (division of cytoplasm) begins
  15. Miotic spindle
    cytoskeleton microtubule that pulls the chromosome
  16. Cyclins
    • Internal signal
    • Chemical messengers that pull the cells to divide
  17. Growth Hormone
    • External signal
    • Chemical signal that pushes cells into mitosis
  18. Apoptosis
    • programs cell death
    • balancing the # of cells in cellular division by decreasing its number through cell death
  19. Cancer
    uncontrolled mitosis
  20. Malignant cancer
    cancer that spreads
  21. Benign
    cancer that stays in one location
  22. Autosomal recessive
    Recessive allele that is only formed with the combination of two recessive traits
  23. Autosomal dominant
    Dominant allele formed with the combination of D + D or D+ d
  24. X linked
    Females that carry a recessive trait pass down to male offsprings
  25. Codominance
    both genes were expressed (red + white = pink)
  26. Testcross
    determines whether and individual with the dominant trait has two dominant factors for a particular trait
  27. Dominant Allele
    most expressed trait
  28. Recessive Allele
    least expressed trait
  29. Genotype
    • refers to alleles an individual receives at fertilization
    • information stored in the DNA
  30. Phenotype
    • expression/trait of a gene
    • physical appearance of the individual that is mostly determined by its genotype
  31. Blood group
    • A
    • B
    • AB
    • O
  32. Blood type A:
    • AA
    • AO
  33. Blood type B:
    • BB
    • BO
  34. Blood type AB:
    • universal recipient
    • AB
  35. Blood type O:
    • universal donor
    • O
  36. positive (+) on blood type
    has an RH factor
  37. Polygenic inheritance
    one trait is governed by two or more sets of alleles
  38. Multifactorial traits
    polygenes are combined with environmental influences
  39. Pleiotropy
    one gene has more effect in the multiple components of the body
  40. Pedigree
    diagram of family relationships that traces genetic occurrences
Card Set:
2013-05-04 07:15:23

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