Anthropology 4

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Anthropology 4
2013-05-04 03:41:34

anth test
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  1. Morphemes
    •smallest units of meaning in a language
  2. Describing Morphemes: Bases
    • •Form foundations of words
    • •Establish basic meanings
  3. Kinds of Bases
    Roots and Stems
  4. Roots
    • •Serve as underlying foundation
    • •Can’t be broken down any further
  5. Stems
    • •Derived from roots
    • •Can have additional affixes attached
  6. Describing Morphemes: Affixes
    • •Attach to bases
    • •Add grammatical information
  7. Kinds of Affixes
    Prefixes, Suffixes, Infixes, Circumfixes, Reduplication, Interweaving, Portmanteau
  8. What Affixes DO
    Derivation and Inflection
  9. Derivation
    –Changing one kind of word into another
  10. Inflection
    Showing relationships among words in a group
  11. Analyzing Arrangement: Free and Bound Morphemes
    • -Free morphemes are like bases (stand alone)
    • -Bound morphemes are like affixes (must be attached to other morphemes)
  12. Allomorphs
    •Variant forms of a single morpheme
  13. Syntax
    How words combine into phrases & sentences
  14. Ambiguities
    Indicate alternative substitution frames
  15. Kinds of Grammars
    Perspective, Descriptive, Generative
  16. Perspective Grammer
    Provides a model of ‘proper’ speech
  17. Descriptive Grammer
    Describes a language structure on its own terms
  18. Generative Grammer
    Generates all possible sentences of a language
  19. Boas and Fieldwork
    • -—Language vs culture vs race
    • -—Language as window into culture
    • -—Language as necessary for fieldwork
  20. Phonetics
    sound of language

    *Acoustic, auditory, articulatory
  21. Acoustic
    physical properties of sound, sound waves
  22. Auditory
    perception of sounds, psychological “reality”
  23. Articulatory
    • -pronunciation of sounds, articulation
    • -also known as descriptive phonetics
  24. English Consonants are pronounced and can be described by three main components
    • —-Point of Articulation (Place in vocal tract where flow of air is modified)
    • -—Manner of Articulation (How flow of air is modified)
    • -Voicing (Whether or not vocal chords are vibrating)
  25. Approximants
    • -Sometimes called liquids & glides
    • -Variously charted in different systems
  26. Vowels can also be understood by looking at three components
    • -—Tongue height
    • -—Tongue advancement
    • -—Lips rounded or unrounded
  27. —phone
    • -—smallest identifiable unit of sound in a language
    • -more easily identified by outsiders
  28. phoneme
    • -—smallest contrastive unit of sound in a language
    • -heard as a single sound by insiders
  29. Phonetics
    —identify & describe sounds in detail (phones)
  30. —Phonemics
    • —-analyze arrangements of sounds
    • -identify groupings of sounds (phonemes)
  31. Variations
    • -—a phoneme can be a single sound/phone
    • -—or it can be a group of sounds/phones
  32. allophones of a phoneme
    • -—heard as ‘same sound’ by native speakers
    • -—usually ‘complementary’ to one another
    • -because variation is usually ‘conditioned’ by neighboring sounds
  33. —How many phonemes in a language?
    • -—From a few dozen to 100+
    • -Vowels 8.7 (English 14)
    • -Consonants 22.8 (24)