Anthro Final Pt 1

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Anthro Final Pt 1
2013-05-14 02:51:56

anth test
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  1. Anthropology
    • -study of “man”?
    • -—Began in 19th Century
    • -holistic and global in its approach to study of humanity
    • -“most human of sciences and most scientific of humanities”
    • -fieldwork oriented
  2. The Four Field Approach
    • -—Physical or Biological Anthropology
    • -—Cultural Anthropology
    • -—Archaeology
    • -—Linguistic Anthropology
  3. Biological Anthropology
    • -studies human biology in framework of evolution
    • -Some of goals are to understand evolution of our species, & to help build understanding of who we are today
  4. Specializations in Biological Anthropology
    • -—Paleoanthropology
    • -—Primatology
    • -—Population Genetics
    • -—Anatomy and Osteology
    • -—Forensic Anthropology
    • -—Human Ecology
  5. Cultural anthropology (social)
    -study of human behavior; specifically in context of societies, communities, and cultures
  6. Areas of Specialization in Cultural Anthropology
    • -—Technology
    • -—Economics
    • -—Social organization; marriage and kinship
    • -—Political structures and activities
    • -—Belief systems; religions, myths, rituals
  7. Linguistic Anthropology
    -study of language as a part of what it is to be human
  8. Evolution
    change in the genetic structure of population
  9. Microevolution
    small genetic changes that occur within a species
  10. Macroevolution
    changes that occur only after many generations, e.g. the appearance of a new species
  11. Adaptation
    response of organisms or populations to the environment, as a result of natural selection
  12. Genetic
    related to gene structure and inheritance of traits from parent to offspring; foundation for evolutionary change
  13. Culture
    learned behavioral aspects of human adaptation, or strategy by which humans adapt
  14. Charles Darwin
    first person to explain the basic mechanics of the evolutionary process
  15. Alfred Russel Wallace
    independently reached recognized the singular importance of natural selection
  16. Natural Selection
    refers to genetic change or changes in frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive success between individuals
  17. Fixity of species
    Earth was created on October 23, 4004 B.C., according to James Ussher
  18. Scientific Revolution
    16th and 17th Century European scientists revolutionize scientific thought
  19. Carolus  Linnaeus’ taxonomic binomial nomenclature
    Homo (genus), sapiens (species)
  20. Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon
    recognized that alterations in climate, for example, were agents of change
  21. Erasmus Darwin
    viewed origins of life in seas and descent from common ancestor
  22. Lamarck’s theory
    Changes made in one lifetime are passed on to offspring
  23. Georges Cuvier’s theory of catastrophism
    • After regional disaster areas restocked with new, but similar forms that migrated in
    • from unaffected areas
  24. Thomas Malthus
    An Essay on the Principle of Population led both Darwin and Wallace to principle of natural selection
  25. Charles Lyell
    • -Climate, plants, animals, and land surfaces vary through time, but underlying influences are constant
    • -Uniformitarianism, or uniform processes over time
  26. Mary Anning
    • -Contributed to understanding of evolution of marine life
    • -Discovered first complete fossil of Ichthyosaurus, large fishlike marine reptile
  27. Processes of Natural Selection
    • 1. Species can produce offspring at a faster rate than food supplies increase
    • 2. There is biological variation within all species
    • 3. In each generation, more individuals are produced than can survive
    • 4.Individuals that possess favorable traits or variations are more likely to survive and produce offspring
    • 5.Environmental context determines whether a trait is beneficial
    • 6.Traits are inherited and passed on to the next generation
    • 7.Variations accumulate over long periods of time, so later generations may be distinct from ancestral ones
    • 8.As populations respond to pressures over time, they may become distinct species,
    • descended from a common ancestor
  28. Fundamentals of Natural Selection
    • •A trait must be inherited if natural selection is to act on it
    • •Natural selection can’t occur without population variation in inherited characteristics
    • •Fitness is relative measure that changes as environment changes
    • •Natural selection can only act on traits that affect reproduction
  29. Four Fields of Anthropology
    • –Archaeology
    • –Physical Anthropology
    • –Cultural Anthropology
    • –Linguistic Anthropology
  30. Anthropology is...
    Holistic, Comparative, and Fieldwork-based
  31. How is anthropology comparative?
    • •Ethnocentrism
    • –frames of reference
    • •Cultural Relativity
    • •Commonalities
  32. How is Anthropology holistic?
    the four fields, and applied anthropology
  33. Ethnography
    • -Major research tool of cultural anthropology
    • -Includes both fieldwork among people in society and written results of fieldwork
  34. Anthropology began in...
    late 19th Century as a comparative science
  35. Ethnographers before concentrated on...
    small-scale, technologically simpler societies
  36. Cultures before were placed on...
    evolutionary scales of cultural development
  37. Franz Boas
    • -father of American anthropology
    • -insisted that grasping whole of culture could be achieved only through fieldwork
    • -Argued that cultures are products of their own history and are unique and particular
    • -Insisted that anthropologists free themselves as much as possible from ethnocentrism and practice cultural relativism
  38. Bronislaw Malinowski
    • -Stressed interrelations among elements of culture
    • -Emphasized notion of function: contributions made by social practices and institutions to maintenance and stability of a society
  39. What is Fieldwork?
    • -systematic exploration of a society
    • -Develops holistic perspective about culture
    • -involves living with group of people, participating in, and observing their behavior
  40. What is Participant Observation?
    -The fieldwork technique that involves gathering cultural data by observing people’s behavior and participating in their lives
  41. Institutional Review Board (IRB)
    A committee organized by a university or other research institution that approves, monitors, and reviews all research that involves human subjects
  42. Culture Shock
    Feelings of alienation and helplessness that result from rapid immersion in a new and different culture
  43. Fieldwork Techniques
    • -Participant observation
    • -Interviewing
    • -Photography
    • -Mapping
    • -Silent observation
    • -Serving apprenticeships
  44. Research Styles of Ethnography
    Emic perspective and Etic perspective
  45. Emic perspective
    examining a society using concepts and distinctions that are meaningful to that culture
  46. Etic perspective
    examining societies using concepts, categories, and rules derived from science

    an outsider’s perspective
  47. Informant (consultant)
    • -Sometimes also called key informant.
    • -Person from whom an anthropologist gathers data
  48. ethnology
    attempt to find general principles or laws that govern cultural phenomena
  49. Human Relations Area Files (HRAF)
    an ethnographic database that includes descriptions of many cultures and is used for cross-cultural research
  50. About Feminist Anthropology
    • -Encourages research that elicits a female perspective in a society, acknowledges
    • significant role that females play in all human cultures, and approaches culture from behind-the-scenes as well as publicly
  51. Postmodernism
    -Theory that focuses on issues of power and voice
  52. Collaborative Anthropology
    Ethnography that gives priority to cultural consultants on the topic, methodology, and written results of research
  53. Engaged Anthropology
    Includes political action as a major goal of fieldwork.

    Engaged anthropologists have no difficulty choosing sides in political contests
  54. Native Anthropology
    • -An anthropologist who does fieldwork in his or her own culture
    • -Anthropologists must maintain social distance of outsider
  55. (Ethical Considerations) Anthropologists must...
    • -Obtain consent of people to be studied
    • -Protect them from risk and respect their privacy and dignity
    • -Protect other anthropologists and future research possibilities.
    • -Publish research findings
  56. Subsistence Strategies
    -The ways in which societies transform material resources of the environment into food, clothing, and shelter
  57. Subsistence Strategies developed in response to..
    • -Seasonal variation in the environment.
    • -Environmental variations such as drought, flood, or animal diseases
  58. Major Subsistence Strategies
    • •Foraging
    • •Pastoralism
    • •Horticulture
    • •Agriculture
    • •Industrialism
  59. Foraging
    • •Relies on food naturally available in the environment
    • •Strategy for 99% of time humans have been on earth
    • •Limits population growth and complexity of social organization
  60. Pastoralism
    • •Caring for domesticated animals which produce both meat and milk
    • •Involves a complex interaction among animals, land, and people
    • •Found along with cultivation or trading relations with food cultivators
  61. About Transhumant Pastoralism
    • •Found mostly in East Africa
    • •Men and boys move animals regularly throughout the year to different areas as
    • pastures become available at different altitudes or in different climatic zones
    • •Women and children and some men remain at a permanent village site
  62. Nomadic Pastoralism
    • •The whole population—men, women, and children—moves with the herds throughout the year
    • •There are no permanent villages
  63. Horticultural
    • •Production of plants using non-mechanized technology
    • •Plant and harvest with simple tools, without use of animals, irrigation, or plows
    • •Typically a tropical forest adaptation and requires cutting and burning of jungle to clear fields for cultivation
  64. Swidden (slash and burn)
    -(slash and burn)

    -A form of cultivation in which a field is cleared by felling the trees and burning the brush
  65. Agriculture
    • (Intensive Cultivation)
    • •Production of plants using plows, animals, and soil and water control
    • •Associated with:
    • –Sedentary villages, the rise of cities
    • –Occupational diversity
    • –Social stratification
  66. Peasants
    Rural cultivators who produce for the subsistence of their households, but are also integrated into larger, complex state societies
  67. Transition to Industrial Economy Had an effect on many aspects of society:
    • •Population growth
    • •Expanded consumption of resources
    • •International expansion
    • •Occupational specialization
    • •Shift from subsistence strategies to wage labor
  68. Economic System
    • -Part of society that deals with production, distribution, and consumption of
    • goods and services
  69. Economics
    the study of how the choices people make determine how their society uses its resources to produce and distribute goods and services
  70. Economizing behavior
    defined by economists is choosing a course of action that pursues the course of perceived maximum benefit
  71. Allocating Resources
    • -Each society has rules to regulate access to resources
    • -Productive resources
    • -Usufructory rights
  72. Each society has rules to regulate access to resources
    Land, water, labor, and the materials from which tools are made
  73. Productive resources
    -used to create other goods or information: Material goods, natural resources, or information
  74. Usufructory rights
    The right to use something (usually land) but not to sell it or alter it in substantial ways
  75. Capital
    • -Productive resources that are used with the primary goal of increasing their owner’s
    • financial wealth

    -Principal form of economic organization in capitalist societies
  76. Organizing Labor
    -Labor is just one aspect of membership in a social group such as the family
  77. Households
    -In most nonindustrial societies, production is based around the household
  78. Sexual Division of Labor
    • -Universal characteristic of society
    • -In foraging societies, men generally hunt and women generally gather
    • -In agricultural societies, both men and women play important roles in food production
  79. Three Main Systems of Exchange
    • -Reciprocity
    • -Redistribution
    • -Market exchange
  80. Reciprocity
    Mutual give-and-take among people of equal status

    Generalized reciprocity and Balanced reciprocity
  81. Generalized reciprocity
    A distribution of goods with no immediate or specific return expected
  82. Balanced reciprocity
    Exchange of goods of nearly equal value, with a clear obligation to return them within a specified time limit
  83. Kula Ring
    A pattern of exchange among many trading partners in the Trobriands and other South Pacific islands
  84. Redistribution
    Exchange in which goods are collected from members of the group and then redistributed to the group

    Ex. Potlatch, Leveling mechanism, Cargo system
  85. Potlatch
    a competitive giveaway practiced by Kwakiutl and other groups of the northwest coast of North America
  86. Leveling mechanism
    a practice, value, or form of social organization that evens out wealth within a society
  87. Cargo system
    a ritual system common in Central and South America in which wealthy people are required to hold a series of costly ceremonial offices
  88. Market Exchange
    -Economic system in which goods and services are bought and sold at a price determined by supply and demand
  89. Characteristics of Capitalism
    • -Most productive resources are owned by a small portion of the population
    • -Most individuals’ primary resource is their own labor
    • -value of workers’ contribution to production is always intended to be greater than the wages they receive
  90. Surplus Value of Labor
    Marxist term for difference between wages a worker is paid and value of their contribution to production to capitalist