The Nervous System

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lmcamenzuli
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217592
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The Nervous System
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2013-05-04 04:26:34
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Nervous System
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flash cards from chapter 7 of ross and wilson anatomy and physiology text book.
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  1. Name the 2 parts of the Nervous System
    • Central Nervous System
    • Peripheral Nervous System
  2. Outline the main difference between the structure of the myelinated and non-myelinated neurones.
    Myelinated neurones have nodes of ranvier whereas non-myelinated neurones don't. One Schwann cell surrounds the axons of many non-myelinated neurones.
  3. The grey matter of the nervous system is formed by:

    A) Cell Bodies
    B) Terminal Boutons
    C) Glial Cells.
    D) Axons
    A) Cell bodies
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Groups of cell bodies in the central nervous system are usually described as:

    A) Tracts
    B) Nerves
    C) Ganglia
    D) Nuclei
    D) Nuclei
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The white matter of the nervous system is formed by:

    A) Glial Cells
    B) Terminal Boutons
    C) Cell Bodies
    D) Axons
    D) Axons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Nerve fibres that carry impulses from the central nervous system are described as:

    A) Efferent
    B) Afferent
    C) Sensory
    D) Tracts
    A) Afferent
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Groups of cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system are described as:

    A) Ganglia
    B) Tracts
    C) Nerves
    D) Nuclei
    A) Ganglia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. The neurone receives incoming impulses at the:

    A) Axon Hillock
    B) Terminal Boutons
    C) Axon
    D) Dendrites
    D) Terminal Boutons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Name the neurotransmitter and the neuromuscular muscle.
    Acetycholine
  10. Outline the function of the blood-brain barrier.
    Protects the brain from potentially toxic substances and chemical variations in the blood.
  11. What is access to the epidural space used for in clinical medicine?
    Insertions of dyes for diagnostic purposes or administration of drugs.
  12. CSF is secreted by choroid plexuses situated in:

    A) The pia mater
    B) The ventricles
    C) The dura mater
    D) The arachnoid mater
    B) The ventricles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. CSF circulation is assissted by (choose all that apply)

    A) Changes in Position
    B) A pump
    C) Breathing
    D) Pulsation of blood vessels
    C), b), d)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. How does CSF return to blood?
    Through the arachnoid villi when CSF is greater than venous pressure.
  15. The approximate volume of CSF in adults is:

    A) 100ml
    B) 50ml
    C) 200ml
    D) 150ml
    D) 150ml
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Outline the functions of CSF.
    CSF supports the brain in the cranial cavity, maintains uniform pressure around the brain and spinal cord by acting as a shock absorber between the brain and cranial bones, keeps the brain and spinal cord moist and may allow exchange of substances between CSF and nerve cells.
  17. Normal CSF pressure when lying down is:

    A) 5cm H20
    B) 15cm H20
    C) 10cm H20
    D) 20cm H20
    C) 10cm H20
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Name the structure which enables the blood supply to the brain to be maintained even when one of the supplying arteries is blocked
    Circulus Ateriosis (Circle of Willis)
  19. Outline the main functions of the cerbrum
    • Mental Activities - Memory, learning reasoning
    • Sensory Activities - Initiation and control of skeletal muscle contraction
  20. Which parts of neurones form grey matter of cerebral cortex?
    Cell bodies
  21. Which parts of neurones form the white matter of the cerebral cortex?
    Axons and Dendrites
  22. Which of the following are parts of the diencephalon?

    a) Midbrain
    b) Pineal gland
    c) Hypothalamus
    d) Thalamus
    B, C, D
  23. Which part pf the diencephalon forms the lateral walls of the third ventricle?

    a) Midbrain
    b) Pineal Gland
    c) Hypothalamus
    d) Thalamus
    D
  24. Which area of the brain controls the pituitary gland?

    a) Hypothalamus
    b) Thalamus
    c) Medulla Oblongata
    d) Pons
    A
  25. The functions of the pons include: (2 answers)

    a) Secretion of CSF
    b) Relay station for nerve impulses
    c) Contributes to control of water and electrolytes
    d) Contributes to control of breathing
    B. D
  26. The cardiovascular centre is located in:

    a) Medulla Oblongata
    b) Pons
    c) Hypothalamus
    d) Heart
    A
  27. The vital centres include: (2 answers)

    a) Vomiting Centre
    b) Vasomotor Centre
    c) The satiety centre
    d) Temperature Regulating Centre
    A, B
  28. The functions of the hypothalamus are (more than 1 answer)

    a) Secretions of hormones from the posterior pirtuitary gland
    b) Secretion of hormones from the anterior pirtuitary gland
    c) Body Temperature
    d) Appetite
    ALL
  29. Proprioceptor impulses orginate in the: (2 answers)

    a) Muscle
    b) Skin
    c) Joints
    d) Eye
    A, C
  30. Outline the functions of the reticular activating system
    Selective awareness - blocks sensory information to cerebral cortex - eg: crying child.
  31. Outline the function of the cerebellum
    Coordination of voluntary movement, postre and balance
  32. What is the length of the spinal cord?
    45cm
  33. The distal end of the spinal cord lies at the lower border of the:
    1st lumbar vertebra
  34. What is a lumbar puncture?
    Insertion of cannula into subarachnoid space below the spinal cord to measure CSF pressure and/or obtain sample of CSF
  35. Identify the points of origin and destination of the spinothalamic origin
    • Origin - Spinal Cord
    • Destination - Thalamus
  36. Identify the points of origin and destination of the corticospinal
    • Origin - Cerebral Cortex
    • Destination - Spinal Cord
  37. Explain the function of a nerve plexus
    A site where nerves are regrouped before going onto their destination, among damage to 1 spinal nerve doesn't cause loss of function of area.
  38. Which cranial nerve innervates most of the gastrointestinal tract?

    a) Trochlear
    b) Abdjucent
    c) Vagus
    d) Accessory
    C
  39. Which cranial nerves carry impulses from the receptors for smell?

    a) Optic
    b) Occulomotor
    c) Glossopharyngeal
    d) Olfactory
    D
  40. Which of the cranial nerves are necessary for non-verbal gestures?

    a) Facial
    b) Trigeminal
    c) Vagus
    d) Olfactory
    A
  41. Which cranial nerves innervate most of the muscles of the eye?

    a) Optic
    b) Osculomotor
    c) Opthalmic
    d) Facial
    B
  42. Which cranial nerves convey the pain from toothache?

    a) Hypoglossal
    b) Trigeminal
    c) Abducent
    d) Facial
    B
  43. Which cranial nerves convey pain from grit in the eye?

    a) Optic
    b) Occulomotor
    c) Trigeminal
    d) Abducent
    C
  44. Name the effector organs of the autonomic nervous system
    • Smooth muscle
    • Cardiac Muscle
    • Glands
  45. List the two diversions of the autonomic nervous system
    • Sympathetic
    • Parasympathetic
  46. What is referred pain?

    And when does it occur?
    Pain from internal organs perceived to originate elsewhere in the body.

    Sensory fibres from affected organ enter same segment of spinal cord as sensory fibres from area of perceived pain and brain perceives them as coming from latter source.

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