1. What causes increased preload? (3) - increased speed of blood delivery back to heart, increased peripheral need for nutrients
2. What causes increased afterload? (3) - impaired outflow, increased pressure in large arteries and increased blood volume.
1. Arterio-venous fistula, hyperthyroidism b/c of incrased need for additional nutrient and O2 delivery and vitamin deficiency same reason as above.
2. Hypertension, obesity, valvular disease (mitral valve prolapse - b/c of regurgitation of blood into left atria increasing workload on heart)