kingdom animal

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  1. Symmetry
    arrangement of body parts in relation to the central axis
  2. Radial
    • animal may be divided into any number of equal halves only along the central longitudinal axis
    • -like cylinder with different top and bottom
    •    -ex., jelly fish
  3. Bilateral
    • body parts usually in pairs on either side of the sagital axis
    • (1)  can be divided into two  parts only along that axis
  4. Terms for bilateral animals
    • anterior – head end
    • (i)    Contains brain and concentration of sensory structures
    •  posterior – tail end
    • dorsal – back side – faces up
    • ventral – belly side – faces down
  5. Body Cavities
    • Acoelomate
    • pseudocoelomate
    • eucoelomate
  6. Acoelomate
    • no body cavity
    • body filled with jelly-like substance
    • ex. flat worms
  7. pseudocoelomate
    • false” body cavity
    • have a body cavity but not lined with membrane
    • pseudocoelom is filled with fluid
  8. eucoelomate
    • “true coelom” 
    • have a body cavity lined with membrane
    • ex. everything after roundworms
  9. Segmentation
    • bodies divided into segments
    • may all be very similar to each other
    • (ex. earthworm
    • (may be specialized groups
    • ex. crayfish
    • not obvious in chordata (ex. humans)
  10. Introduction to Animal Diversity
    • Over 1.5 million species named
    • b)  Less than 20% of species that exist
    • c)   Over 99% are invertebrates
  11. Phylum Porifera – Sponges
    • Simplest Animals in terms of anatomy
    • multicellular but lack true tissues or organs
    • all processes occur at the cellular level
    • all aquatic - mostly marine - a few fresh water
  12. Cindaria - Jellyfish, coral and their relatives
    • name means stinging cells – all have them
    • ii)    hollow sac-like body
    • iii) radial symmetry
    • iv) All aquatic - most marine
    • v)   have tissues and primitive nervous and muscle systems (unlike sponges )
  13. 2 main body types of cindaria
    • polyp
    • ex sea anemone
    • Medusa - umbrella shaped
    • ex jelly fish
    • iii) some cnidarians are always one body type, others alternate in life-cycle
  14. Platyhelminthes - flat worms
    • Characteristics
    • Bilateral symmetry
    • three tissue layers
    • simplest animals with organ system level of complexity
    • Acoelomate 
    • incomplete digest. syst. (if present)
    • no resp. or circ. syst. - gasses diffuse across tegument
    • simple – ladder-like nervous system
    • flame cells for excretion
    • osmoregulation in aquatic spp.
    • nearly all are monoecious (both sexes in one individual)
  15. types of flat worms
    • free - living
    • (1)                       ex. Planaria sp. (fresh water)
    • flukes - trematodes
    • tapeworms
  16. flukes - trematodes
    • parasitic - complex life cycles
    • (adults reproduce sexually in vertebrate host
    • asexual reproduction in snail host
    • ex. Schistosoma sp.
    • (a)Causes human disease schistosomiasis
  17. tapeworms
    • adults - parasites in intestine of vert.
    • lack digestive system 
    • absorb nutrients through body wall – like inside out intestine 
    • complex life-cycles
  18. Phylum Nematoda - round worms
    • Huge phylum
    • all habitats - fresh, marine, terrestrial (soil), many parasitic
    • nearly all animals have a nematode parasite
    • Characteristics
    • Pseudocoelomate
    • cavity has several functions
    • Hydrostatic skeleton - liquid pressure gives support, protects organs, movement, circulation of nutrients, gasses
    • lack circulatory and respiratory systems
    • complete digest. syst.
    • reproduce sexually
    • sexes usually separate (dioecious)
  19. some parasitic nematodes of medical importance
    • Ascaris lumbricoides – large roundworm of humans
    • Pinworm - ubiquitous 
    • Filarial worms - not a direct life cycle - insect host
    • ex - dog heart worm
  20. Phylum Mollusca
    • a)eucoelomate
    • b)mostly marine - many fresh water and some terrestrial
    • c)most have shell of CaCO3
    • i)secreted by mantle
    • d)soft body with muscular foot and visceral mass
    • e open circ. syst. –
    • i)exception: squid and octopus
    • f)Reproduce sexually - most dioecious
    • g)respiration – gills in most,
    • h)examples
    • i)clams and relatives - shell of two valves - bivalves (class)
    • ii)snails  and their relatives - one shell foot
    • iii) Squid and octopus
  21. Phylum Annelida - segmented worms
    • eucoelomate
    • b)  true segmentation
    • c)   closed circ. syst.
    • d)  excretion by nephridia
    • e)   nerv. syst. with . ventral nerve cord and cerebral ganglia
    • f)     sexual repro.
    • g)  groups
    • i)earthworms - terrestrial and aquatic
    • ii)polychaeta - almost all marine
    • iii) leaches
  22. Phylum Arthropoda
    • a)   most successful group of animals
    • i)      mostly due to the insects
    • b)   name means jointed appendage
    • c)   segmented –
    • i)      seg. specialized
    • d)  exoskeleton of chitin
    • e)   most repro. sex. - most dioecious
    • f) open circ. syst.
    • g)  groups
    • i) trilobites
    • (1)extinct
    • (2)in fossil record
    • ii)spiders and relatives (scorpions, mites, ticks)
    • (1)4 pairs of walking legs (eight total)
    • iii) insects
    • (1)usually 3 pairs of walking legs and 1 or 2 pairs of wings
    • (2)extremely diverse
    • (3)most undergo some metamorphosis
    • (a) complete - egg, larva, pupa, adult
    • (i)   ex. flies, butterflies
    • (bincomplete - egg - larval stages - adult
    • (i)   ex. grasshoppers
  23. crustaceans - shrimp, lobster, crayfish, crabs
    • mostly aquatic -
    • most resp. by gills   
  24. Phylum Echinodermata - Name means spiny skin
    • Characteristics
    • i)Have pentaradial symmetry (parts arranged in fives around central axis) as adults
    • ii)Bilateral symmetry as larvae
    • iii) Early devel. sim. to chordates
    • iv) Have water vascular system - unique to phylum –
    • b)  Examples
    • i)      Starfish
    • ii)    sea urchins
    • iii) brittle stars
    • iv) sea lilies (crinoids)
    • v)   sea cucumbers
  25. Phylum Chordata
    • mostly vertebrates – animals with backbones
    • b)  Characteristics– all have during some part of their development
    • i)      Notochord – dorsal rod that supports the body – only in embryonic vert.
    • ii)    Dorsal, hollow nerve cord – becomes brain and spinal cord in most
    • iii) Pharyngeal gill slits
  26. Invertebrate chordates – have above char.
    • Tunicates (sea squirts) – mostly marine, mostly sessile as adults, filter feeers, many are colonial
    • ii)    Lancelets – fish-shaped invertebrates, marine, filter-feeders
    • iii) Probably closest relatives of the vertebrates
  27. Vertebrate chordates Groups
    • 3 classes of fish – all aquatic, no legs
    • Other groups are all tetrapods (4-legged) - most terrestrial
    • Amphibians– frogs, salamanders etc
    • Reptiles – snakes, lizards, turtles, etc
    • Birds – evolved from reptiles
    • Mammals
  28. Amphibians– frogs, salamanders etc.
    • breed and lay eggs in water where larval development occurs (ex tadpole)– become adults and move onto land
    • ectothermic= cold blooded
  29. Reptiles – snakes, lizards, turtles, etc
    • Have totally terrestrial life history
    • (b)Adaptations
    • (i)   scales of keratin to prevent desiccation,
    • (ii)amniote egg
    • 1.   shell to prevent des.
    • 2.   stores wastes in a non-toxic way
    • 3.   stores nut. for dev. of embryo
    • ectothermic= cold blooded
  30. Birds – evolved from reptiles
    • (a Have amniote egg
    • (bscales on legs
    • (c)and beaks of keratin
    • adapted for flight
    • (i)   feathers
    • (ii)hollow bones
    • (iii) requires a lot of energyendothermic = warm blooded
  31. Mammals
  32. (aEmbryonic development is internal – in females
    • (b)Mammary glands on female for care of new-born
    • (c)Body with hair
    • (d)endothermic

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Author:
cgat45
ID:
217638
Filename:
kingdom animal
Updated:
2013-05-04 16:39:36
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animal
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