Chapter 5: Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution, 1700-1775

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Chapter 5: Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution, 1700-1775
2013-05-04 15:01:22
Chapter Colonial Society Eve Revolution 1700 1775

Chapter 5: Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution, 1700-1775
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  1. melting pot -
    The mingling of diverse ethnic groups in America, including the idea that these  groups are or should be "melting" into a single culture or people.  "Colonial America was a melting pot and has been from the outset."
  2. sect -
    A small religious group that has broken away from some larger mainstream church.  "They belonged to several different Protestant sects...."
  3. agitators -
    Those who seek to excite or persuade the public on some issue.  "Already experienced colonizers and agitators in Ireland, the Scots-Irish proved to be superb frontiersmen...."
  4. stratification -
    The visible arrangement of society into a hierarchical pattern, with distinct social groups layered one on top of the other.  "...colonial society....was beginning to show signs of stratification...."
  5. mobility -
    The capacity to pass readily from one social or economic condition to another.  "...barriers to mobility...raised worries about the ‘Europeanization' of America."
  6. elite -
    The smaller group at the top of a society or institution, usually possessing wealth, power, or special privileges.  "...these elites now feathered their nests more finely."
  7. almshouse -
    A home for the poor, supported by charity or public funds.  "Both Philadelphia and New York built almshouses in the 1730s...."
  8. gentry -
    Landowners of substantial property, social standing, and leisure, but not titled nobility.  "Wealth was concentrated in the hands of the largest slave-owners, widening the gap between the prosperous gentry and the ‘poor whites'..."
  9. tenant farmer -
    • One who rents rather than owns land.  "...the ‘poor whites'...were increasingly forced to become tenant farmers."
    • penal code  The body of criminal laws specifying offenses and prescribing punishments.  "But many convicts were the unfortunate victims...of a viciously unfair English penal code...."
  10. veto -
    The executive power to prevent acts passed by the legislature from becoming law.  "Thomas Jefferson...assailed such vetoes...."
  11. apprentice -
    A person who works under a master to acquire instruction in a trade or profession.  "Aspiring young doctors served for a while as apprentices to older practitioners...."
  12. speculation -
    Buying land or anything else in the hope of profiting by an expected rise in price.  "Commercial ventures and land speculation...were the surest avenues to speed wealth."
  13. revival -
    In religion, a movement of renewed enthusiasm and commitment, often accompanied by special meetings or evangelical activity.  "The stage was thus set for a rousing religious revival."
  14. secular -
    Belonging to the worldly sphere rather than to the specifically sacred or churchly.  "A more secular approach was evident late in the eighteenth century..."