Geography Test

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Geography Test
2013-05-08 10:46:36

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  1. Air Pressure, definition
    force exerted by the weight of the atmosphere
  2. barometer
    instrument used to determine air pressure
  3. two units that can be used to measure air pressure
    inches of mercury, and millibars (unit that measures actual force of atmosphere pushing down on surface)
  4. What air temperature and density is associated with low pressure?
    Warm air, less dense than cool air
  5. What air temperature and density is associated with high pressure?
    cold, dense air
  6. wind, definition
    horizontal movement of air
  7. direction of wind is influences by...
    Coriolis effect
  8. Water vapor, definition
    odorless, colorless gas produced by evaporation of water
  9. humidity, direction
    any measure of water vapor in the air
  10. relative humidity
    ratio of air's actual water vapor content with amount of water vapor required for saturation at that temperature
  11. dew-point temperature
    temperature at which relative humidity of air is 100%
  12. magma, definition
    substantial proportion of melted rock from Earth's outer core
  13. 3 factors that cause it
    temperature, pressure, pressure-temperature diagrams
  14. tectonics
    study of earth's structural features
  15. Plate Tectonics Hypothesis
    model of Earth's global tectonism; Earth's lithosphere is broken into dozen major plates that move about
  16. topographic map
    used for investigating many kinds of landforms that exist on Earth's surface, produced in late 1800s
  17. contour lines
    line drawn on topographic map that connects all points that have equal elevation above or below reference place on Earth's surface
  18. drawing contour lines
    EX: 20-foot contour interval, draw contour line for each 20-foot change in elevation below and above 100 feet
  19. topographic profiles
    "side-view", provide a more useful representation of the elevations and slopes of an area; guideline map
  20. hydrologic cycle
    describes continuous movement of water from oceans to atmosphere--> to land--> to sea
  21. infiltration
    portion of precipitation that falls on land will soak into ground
  22. runoff
    when rate of rainfall > surface's ability to absorb it, additional water flows over surface
  23. Infiltration and runoff influenced by two factors
    porosity and permeability
  24. porosity
    total volume of available pore space in soil, result of texture and structure of soil
  25. permeability
    ability of water to flow through soil or rock; function of texture and structure of medium
  26. how does a river valley change at its different stages?
    rivers & streams responsible for producing vast of erosional & depositional landforms in both humid & regions
  27. groundwater
    supplies much of our water needs for consumption, irrigation, and industry
  28. zone of saturation
    groundwater soaked into Earth's surface and occupies all pores spaces in soil
  29. zone of aeration
    pore spaces of materials are unsaturated and mainly filled with air
  30. what causes ground subsidence
    settlement of native low density soils, or caving in of natural/man-made underground voids
  31. drylands
    lands in arid and dry sub-humid climates
  32. degradation
    state of declining agriculture productivity due to natural/human causes
  33. desertification
    causes dry land to become desert with no agricultural value
  34. eolian processes
    erosion and deposition associated with wind; dry landscapes
  35. alluvial fan
    fan-shaped, delta-like deposit of alluvian made at mouth of stream
  36. bajada
    continuous apron of alluvial fans below a mountain front
  37. mountain front
    sharp-angled intersection where steep lower slope of mountain range meets pediment or alluvial fan
  38. pediment
    gently inclined erosion surface in upper part of piedmont slope
  39. playa
    shallow central part of desert basin, water gathered from rain that evaporated to leave silt
  40. sand dunes
    small hill or ridge of windblown sand
  41. bolson
    basin into which water drains from surrounding mountains to central playa
  42. zone of accumulation
    snow/ice are collected, compacted, & recrystallized under their own weight
  43. zone of ablation
    glacial ice flowing downhill where it melts or sublimes faster
  44. cirque glaciers
    small semicircular to triangular glaciers that form on sides of mountains
  45. valley glaciers
    long glaciers that flow down stream valleys in mountains
  46. piedmont glaciers
    mergers of two or more valley glaciers at foot of mountain range
  47. ice sheet
    vast, pancake-shaped ice mound that covers large portion of continent & flows independent of topographic features beneath it
  48. mountain glaciation
    characterized by cirque glaciers, valley glaciers, and piedmont glaciers
  49. cirque
    bowl-shaped depression on high mountain slopes, formed by cirque glacier
  50. arete
    sharp, jagged, knife-edge ridge between two cirques or glaciated valleys
  51. col
    mountain pass formed by erosion or cirques
  52. horn
    steep-sided, pyramid-shaped peak produced by erosion or cirques
  53. headwall
    steep slope of rock cliff at upslope end of glaciated valley or cirque
  54. glacial trough
    u-shaped glaciated valley formed by action of valley glacier
  55. hanging valley
    glacial trough of tributary glacier, elevated above main trough