Biology - Plant Organelles

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Author:
Wobbuffet
ID:
217746
Filename:
Biology - Plant Organelles
Updated:
2013-05-05 00:49:32
Tags:
Organelles
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Description:
Organelles found only in plant cells
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  1. Cell Wall
    • composed of cellulose
    • enclose cell membrane
    • mechanical support and protection
    • allows tugor pressure to develop in hypotonic media without osmosis causing rupture
    • Middle lamella between walls of adjacent cells cements neighbouring cells together
    • Plasmodesmata allows transport of materials from cell to cell
  2. Plastids
    • double membrane organelles
    • Chromoplasts - non photosynthetic, containing red, yellow and orange pigments which provide colour to flowers, fruit and leaves
    • Leucoplasts - colourless, starch storage
    • Chloroplasts - largem consisting of fluid matrix or stroma and flattened stacks of membranous discs called grona.
    • Contain chlorophyl and function in photosynthesis, contain DNA
  3. Vacuole
    • Large central vacuole contains cell sap 
    • Storage of substances and osmotic control of cell
  4. Cytoskeleton
    • Orientation and movement of organelles within the cytoskeleton
    • a framework of protein filaments
    • 3 main elements of the cytoskeleton:
    • microfilaments, microtubules, intermediate filaments
  5. Microfilaments
    • fine strands of the globular protein actin
    • bind with other proteins
    • hold organelles in position with the cytoplasm
    • interactions of actin microfilaments with another protein, myosin, bring about general movement of the cytoplasm, organelles and the cell as a whole.
  6. Microtubules
    • hollow cylinders of the protein tubulin
    • provide greater mechanical support
    • provide routes for minerals to travel in the cytoplasm
    • Form spindles to part chromosomes
  7. Intermediate Filaments
    • composed of fibrous proteins between microfilaments and microtubules
    • strong, stable and resistant to stretching
    • mechanical support

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