Pathology - Neoplasia

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certainlygirl
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217754
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Pathology - Neoplasia
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2013-06-24 23:31:29
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oncogenes tumor suppressor genes markers first aid
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  1. abl

    (oncogene - gain of fnc --> cancer
    Need damage to only 1 allele)
    tumor - CML

    gene product - tyrosine kinase
  2. c-myc

    (oncogene - gain of fnc --> cancer
    Need damage to only 1 allele)
    tumor - Burkitt's lymphoma

    gene product - transcription factor
  3. bcl-2

    (oncogene - gain of fnc --> cancer
    Need damage to only 1 allele)
    tumor - Follicular and undifferentiated lymphomas (inhibits apoptosis)

    gene products - anti-apoptotic molecule
  4. erb-B2

    (oncogene - gain of fnc --> cancer
    Need damage to only 1 allele)
    tumor - Breast, ovarian, and gastric carcinomas

    gene product - tyrosine kinase
  5. ras

    (oncogene - gain of fnc --> cancer
    Need damage to only 1 allele)
    tumor - Colon carcinoma

    gene product - GTPase
  6. L-myc

    (oncogene - gain of fnc --> cancer
    Need damage to only 1 allele)
    tumor - Lung tumor

    gene product - transcription factor
  7. N-myc

    (oncogene - gain of fnc --> cancer
    Need damage to only 1 allele)
    tumor - Neuroblastoma

    gene product - transcription factor
  8. ret

    (oncogene - gain of fnc --> cancer
    Need damage to only 1 allele)
    tumor - Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types II and III

    gene product - tyrosine kinase
  9. c-kit

    (oncogene - gain of fnc --> cancer
    Need damage to only 1 allele)
    tumor - Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)

    gene product - cytokine receptor
  10. Rb
    chromosome - 13q

    tumor - Retinoblastoma, osteosarcoma

    gene products - Rb gene product blocks G1 -> S phase of cell cycle
  11. p53
    chromosome - 17p

    tumor - Most human cancers, Li-Fraumeni syndrome

    gene products - p53 gene product blocks G1 -> S phase of the cell cycle
  12. BRCA1
    chromosome - 17q

    tumor - Breast and ovarian cancer

    gene products - DNA repair protein
  13. BRCA2
    chromosome - 13q

    tumor - Breast cancer

    gene product - DNA repair protein
  14. p16
    chromosome - 9p

    tumor - Melanoma
  15. APC
    chromosome - 5q

    tumor - Colorectal cancer (associated w/ Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) )
  16. WTI
    chromosome - 11p

    tumor - Wilms' tumor
  17. NF1
    chromosome - 17q

    tumor - Neurofibromatosis Type 1
  18. NF2
    chromosome - 22q

    tumor - Neurofibromatosis Type 2
  19. DPC
    chromosome - 18q

    tumor - Pancreatic cancer

    *Deleted in Pancreatic Cancer
  20. DCC
    chromosome - 18q

    tumor - Colon cancer

    *Deleted in Colon Cancer
  21. PSA
    Prostate-specific antigen

    Prostate cancer screening

    Can also be elevated in BPH and prostatitis
  22. Prostatic acid phosphatase
    Prostate cancer
  23. CEA
    Carcinoembryonic antigen

    ~70% of colorectal and pancreatic cancers

    Also gastric, breast, and thyroid medullary carcinomas

    Very nonspecific
  24. α-fetoprotein
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

    Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis (e.g. yolk sac tumor)

    Normally made by fetus
  25. β-hCG
    Hydatidiform mole, Choriocarcinomas, and Gestational trophoblastic tumors
  26. CA-125
    Ovarian, malignant epithelial tumors
  27. S-100
    Melanoma, neural tumors, astrocytomas
  28. Alkaline phosphatase
    Metastases to bone, obstructive biliary disease, and Paget's Disease of bone
  29. Bombesin
    Neuroblastoma, lung and gastric cancer
  30. TRAP
    Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase

    Hairy cell leukemia (B-cell neoplasm)

    *TRAP the hairy animal
  31. CA-19-9
    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma
  32. Calcitonin
    Thyroid medullary carcinoma
  33. HTLV-1
    cancer - Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma
  34. HBV, HCV
    cancer - Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
  35. EBV
    cancer - Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma
  36. HPV
    cancer - Cervical carcinoma (16,18,31,33), penile/anal carcinoma
  37. HHV-8
    cancer - Kaposi's sarcoma, body cavity fluid B-cell lymphoma
  38. HIV
    cancer - Primary CNS lymphoma
  39. H. pylori
    cancer - Gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma
  40. Schistosoma
    cancer - Squamous cell carcinoma of transitional epithelium, e.g. bladder
  41. Aflavotoxin
    carcinogen

    fungus - Aspergillus

    organ - Liver

    cancer - Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
  42. Vinyl chloride
    carcinogen

    organ - Liver

    cancer - Angiocarcinoma
  43. CCl4
    carcinogen

    name - Carbon tetrachloride

    organ - Liver

    prob - centrilobular necrosis, fatty change

    mech - free radical production from P450 in liver --> impaired protein synthesis of apoE

    scenario - dry cleaners
  44. Nitrosamines (e.g. in smoked foods)
    carcinogen

    organ - Esophagus, stomach
  45. Cigarette smoke
    carcinogen

    organ - Larynx (SCC), lung (SCC & small cell), kidney (renal cell), bladder (transitional cell)
  46. Asbestos
    carcinogen

    organ - Lung

    cancer - mesothelioma & bronchogenic carcinoma
  47. Arsenic
    carcinogen

    organ - Skin (SCC), liver (angiosarcoma)
  48. Naphthalene (aniline) dyes
    carcinogen

    organ - Bladder

    cancer - transitional cell carcinoma
  49. Alkylating agents
    carcinogen

    organ - Blood

    cancer - leukemia
  50. Psammoma bodies
    Laminated (dark outline), concentric (onion), calcific spherules

    • Papillary (thyroid)
    • Serous (papillary ovary)
    • Meningioma
    • Mesothelioma
  51. Metastasis to liver
    Cancer Sometimes Penetrates Benign Liver

    Colon > Stomach > Pancreas > Breast > Lung
  52. Metastasis to bone
    • Breast, Prostate
    • Lung, Kidney
    • Thyroid, Testes
  53. Ring-enhancing brain lesions (ddx)
    Metastases, abscesses, toxoplasmosis, AID lymphoma
  54. Uniformly enhancing brain lesions (ddx)
    Lymphoma, meningioma, metastases (less common)
  55. Heterogenously enhancing brain lesion
    Glioblastoma multiforme
  56. Down's Syndrome
    neoplasm - ALL, AML (less)

    We ALL fall Down
  57. Xeroderma pigmentosum, albinism
    neoplasm - Melanoma, BCC, SCC
  58. Chronic atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, postsurgical gastric remnants
    neoplasm - Gastric adenocarcinoma
  59. Single gene disorders showing high rates in Autism
    • - Fragile X
    • - Tuberous Sclerosis
    • - Rett Syndrome
  60. Tuberous Sclerosis (facial fibroangioma, seizures, mental retardation)
    neplasm - astrocytoma, angiomyolipoma, and cardiac rhabdomyoma

    mutation - TSC1, TSC2 (cell proliferation)
  61. Actinic keratosis
    SCC
  62. Barrett's esophagus (chronic GI reflux)
    neoplasm - Esophageal adenocarcinoma
  63. Plummer-Vinson syndrome
    • features:
    • - atrophic glossitis (dysphagia; glossodynia - tongue pain)
    • - esophageal webs
    • - iron-deficiency anemia

    neoplasm - SCC of esophagus

    treatment - give iron
  64. Cirrhosis (alcoholic, Hep B, Hep C)
    neoplasm - Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
  65. Ulcerative colitis
    neoplasm - Colonic adenocarcinoma
  66. Paget's disease of bone
    neoplasm - 2° osteosarcoma and fibrosarcoma
  67. Immunodeficiency states
    neoplasm - Malignant lymphomas
  68. AIDS
    neoplasm - Aggressive malignant lymphomas (non-Hodgkins) and Kaposi's sarcoma
  69. Autoimmune diseases (e.g. Hashimoto's thyroiditis, myasthenia gravis)
    neoplasm - Lymphoma
  70. Acanthosis nigricans (hyperpigmentation and epidermal thickening)
    neoplasm - Visceral malignancy (stomach, lung, breast, uterus)
  71. Dyplastic nevus
    neoplasm - Malignant melanoma
  72. Radiation exposure
    neoplasm - Sarcoma, papillary thyroid cancer
  73. Primary amyloidosis
    features - β-pleated sheets, apple-green bifringence of Congo red stain under polarized light

    protein - AL

    derived from - Ig light chains (mult. myeloma)

    *AL = Light chain
  74. Secondary amyloidosis
    features - β-pleated sheets, apple-green bifringence of Congo red stain under polarized light

    protein - AA

    derived from - serum amyloid-associated (SAA) protein (chronic inflammatory disease)

    *AA = Acute-phase reactant
  75. Senile cardiac amyloidosis
    features - β-pleated sheets, apple-green bifringence of Congo red stain under polarized light

    protein - Transthyretin

    derived from - AF

    *AF = old Fogies (old peeps)
  76. Diabetes mellitus Type 2 amyloidosis
    features - β-pleated sheets, apple-green bifringence of Congo red stain under polarized light

    protein - Amylin

    derived from - AE

    • *Amylin like Insulin
    • *Diabeeeeetes = AEeeee
  77. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid amyloidosis
    features - β-pleated sheets, apple-green bifringence of Congo red stain under polarized light

    protein - A-CAL

    derived from - calcitonin

    *A-CAL = CALcitonin
  78. Alzheimer's Disease amyloidosis
    features - β-pleated sheets, apple-green bifringence of Congo red stain under polarized light

    protein - β-amyloid

    derived from - amyloid precursor protein (APP) on chromosome 21 (assoc. w/ Down's)
  79. Dialysis-associated amyloidosis
    features - β-pleated sheets, apple-green bifringence of Congo red stain under polarized light

    protein - β2-microglobulin

    derived from - MHC class 1 proteins
  80. Keratin (intermediate filament)
    Epithelium
  81. Vimentin (intermediate filament)
    Mesenchyme
  82. Desmin (intermediate filament)
    Muscle
  83. GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) (intermediate filament)
    Neuroglia
  84. Neurofilament (intermediate filament)
    Neurons
  85. Chromogranin
    Neuroendocrine cells (e.g. small cell carcinoma of lung and carcinoid tumors)
  86. Small cell lung carcinoma

    (cause and effect)
    it spits out - ACTH or ACTH-like peptide

    the effect - Cushing's syndrome
  87. Small cell lung carcinoma and intracranial neoplasms

    (causes and effects)
    it spits out - ADH

    the effect - SIADH
  88. Squamous cell lung carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and breast carcinoma

    (causes and effects)
    it spits out - PTH-related peptide, TGF-β, TNF, IL-1

    the effect - Hypercalcemia
  89. Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastoma

    (causes and effects)
    it spits out - Erythropoetin

    the effect - Polycythemia
  90. Thymoma, small cell lung carcinoma

    (causes and effects)
    it spits out - Antibodies against presynaptic Ca2+ channels at neuromuscular junction

    the effect - Lambert-Eaton syndrome (muscle weakness)
  91. Leukemias and lymphomas

    (causes and effects)
    it causes - hyperuricemia due to excess nucleic acid turnover (i.e. cytotoxic therapy)

    the effect - Gout, urate mephropathy

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