PTG 105-Exam 4-Skin 1
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What is another term for a Mole?
What is a Nevi/mole?
A benign proliferation of melanocytes in the skin
When do nevi develop?
What is the relative risk of melanoma from nevi?
What type of nevi is a precursor to malignant melanoma?
What is a Dysplastic nevi?
A nevi with atypia (that may lead to malignant melanoma)
Describe how Nevi grow?
- proliferate at dermal-epidermal junction
- The grow into dermis
- then reside in the dermis only
What is a junctional nevi?
One that resides at the dermal-epidermal junction
What is a compound nevi?
One that has grown from the dermal-epidermal junction into the dermis
What is a intradermal nevi?
One that resides entirely in the dermis
What is a flat or slightly raised pigmented lesion also known as?
Where is the most common site for male melanoma?
Where is the most common site for female melanoma?
What is the most dangerous type of skin cancer?
What percent of malignant melanoma patients die of metastatic disease?
Where does Malignant melanoma metastasize to?
Anywhere...brain, lungs, lymph nodes, et.c
What is an acral melanoma?
How does malignant melanoma grow?
- Horizontally within the epidermis
- Vertically within the dermis
What type of skin disease grown horizontally in the epidermis and vertically in the dermis?
How is probability of metastases determined in malignant melanoma?
by the length of vertical growth into the dermis
What are the meninges?
The coverings of the brain
How many meninges are there?
What are the three meninges from external to internal?
- Dura mater
- Arachnoid mater
- Pia mater
What is meningitis?
Inflammation of the brain coverings
What are the four types of intracranial bleeding?
- extra dural
What is Cerebrospinal fluid analysis?
- culture and gram stain
- look for increased antibodies (as for MS)
What is Computerized axial tomography and what is it used for?
- CT scan
- Used to see mass lesions
What is magnetic resonance imaging used for?
What is Electrocephalogram used for?
What is Angiography used for?
Vascular lesion (i.e aneurysm)
What is cerebral edema?
Increased water content on the brain
What is the term for increased water on the brain?
What are the two types of cerebral edema?
Vasogenic and Cytotoxic
What is Vasogenic cerebral edema?
Cerebral edema caused by disruption of the cerebral capillaries and blood brain barrier
What type of cerebral edema is caused by disruption of the capillaries and blood brain barrier?
What is Cytotoxic cerebral edema?
Cerebral edema second to brain cell damage
What type of cerebral edema is second to brain cell damage?
Under what conditions would vasogenic cerebral edema be seen?
- late stage cerebral ischemia
Under what conditions would you expect to find Cytotoxic cerebral edema?
- Reyes syndrome
- Early ischemia
What would you like to do?
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