PTG 105-Exam 4-Neural 1
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What types of intoxifications cause Cytotoxic cerebral edema?
How does the Blood brain barrier restrict access to the brain?
tight junctions and metabolic barriers
What is the rate limiting factor in determining permeability of the a drug into the brain?
The blood brain barrier
What is the blood brain barrier?
Specialized network of capillaries that limit what passes into the brain
What is the result of Cerebral edema?
- Increased intracranial pressure
- Can lead to brain damage
What are symptoms of cerebral edema?
- Change in consciousness
Whatis the most catastrophi cevernt associated with cerebral edema?
- Coning/Brain herniation
- Where the brain pushes through the base of the skull
What is the treatment for cerebral edema?
- Remove lesion
- Corticosteroids to stabilize the membranes
- Osmotherapy to reduce edema (such as mannitol and carbonic anhydrase)
What would you use to reduce a cerebral edema?
Osmotherapy such as mannitol or carbonic anhydrase
Why would you use carbonic anhydrase to treat cerebral edema?
Stabilize the membranes
What does the brain look like after cerebral edema?
Widened Gyri with a flattened surface and narrowed sulci
A brain that has widened gyri, narrowed sulci and a flattened surface most likely suffered from what?
What is Hydrocephalus?
Accumulation of fluid in the Ventricle system of the brain
What are the two main causes of Hydrocephalus?
- Overproduction of CSF
- Blockage of CSF circulation
What is the most common cause of Hydrocephalus?
Congenital defects in CSF circulatory pathway development
What disease other than congenital defects commonly cause hydrocephalus?
- Hemorrhage of tumors (that block CSF)
Where is CSF produced?
In the Ventricles of the brain
What is the purpose of the Ventricle system of the brain?
- Protect the brain from impact
- Remove waste
How is waste from the Ventricle system eliminated?
Through the blood stream
What are the manifestations of Hydrocephalus?
In babies: increased size of head and mental retardation
What are three vascular disorders that effect the brain?
- Cerebrospinal accident
What is a brain vascular disorder?
Local interruption of the blood flow to the brain
What is the outcome of brain vascular disorders?
Brain death within minutes
What are the risk factors for brain vascular disorders (10)?
- cerebral aneurysm
- berry aneurysm
- heart disease
- male sex
What are the main types of stroke?
What is Ischemic stroke?
Loss of blood supply
What is the most common type of stroke?
What are the two type of Ischemic stroke and their relative incidence?
- Atherothrombotic (25-30%)
- Emboli stroke (35-40%)
What is Hemorrhagic stroke?
- Intracerebral hemorrhage
- Rupture of saccular aneurysm/vasular malformation
What percent of strokes are Hemorrhagic?
What often causes atrial thrombus in an ischemic strok?
What often causes thrombus from the heart in ischemic stroke?
What type of stroke is caused by atrial thrombus or a thrombus from the heart?
Embolic Ischemic stroke
What is a rare stroke type discussed in class?
How common is Hypoperfusion infarct?
What is Hypoperfusion infarct?
Inadequate arterial blood supply due to hypotension
What is the term for inadequate arterial blood supply to the brain due to hypotension?
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