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What is a mini stroke called?
- Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)
- Occurs when blood supply is briefly interrupted
What are the manifestations of stroke?
- sudden paralysis
- Confusion or loss of conciousness
What are the outcomes and their associated proportions for stroke?
- 1/3 die
- 1/3 live with serious defects
- 1/3 recover
What does stroke prognosis depend on?
Amount and site of brain involved
What are the symptoms of stroke?
- Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arms or legs
- Sudden inability to see in one or both eyes
- Sudden speech issues
- Sudden trouble with balance
- Sudden severe headache
Which is more common, arterial thrombosis or venous thrombosis of the brain?
What is the best treatment for stroke?
What is the treatment for Ischemic strokes?
Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)
What would you treat with tissue plasminogen activator?
What is the window of opportunity to treat a stroke?
What can be done to treat dead brain tissue?
Little, basically just physical therapy
What is a TIA due to?
- Atherosclerotic narrowing of the blood vessel
- Small emboli that temporarily lodge
How long do TIA attacks last?
minutes to hours
What are symptoms of TIA?
- visual disturbances
- transient paresis
- sensory loss
The blood deficit involved in a TIA usually resolves in what time period?
What do TIAs indicate?
- Future stroke
- Serve as a warning for cerebrovascular accidents
Where is a subarachnoid hemorrhage located?
Beneath the arachnoid and above the pia mater
What is the most common type of brain hemorrhage?
What percent of hemorrhages are subarachnoid, subdural or extradural?
Describe a Saccular aneurysm or a subarachnoid hemorrhage?
Ruptured cerebral aneurysm that causes a stroke
What type of hemorrhage can be described as a ruptured cerebral aneurysm that causes a stroke?
- Saccular aneurysm
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage
What percent of the population has subarachnoid hemorrhage or saccular aneurysm?
What is a predisposing condition for Saccular aneurysm and Subarachnoid hemorrhage?
- Polycystic kidney disease
- Can run in families
What are symptoms of Saccular aneurysm and Subarachnoid hemorrhage?
- severe headache
- neck stiffness
- body weakness in certain areas
- loss of consciousness
What is the death rate for Saccular Aneurysm and Subarachnoid hemorrhage?
50% within hours to days
How is Subarachnoid hemorrhage or Saccular aneurysm treated?
If caught on time, clip the bleeding vessels surgically
What is Epidural Hematoma?
- Hemorrhage between the skull and the top layer of Dura
- Due to middle meningeal artery damage
- Secondary to skull fracture in temporal area
What type of brain hematoma is secondary to skull trauma in the temporal region?
What is the presentation of Epidural hematoma?
Lucid interval followed by progressive loss of consciousness
What characteristic is special to epidural hematoma?
Describe the "lucid period" associated with Epidural hematoma:
- Loss of consciousness or confusion is followed by a temporary improvement in condition then regression
- Lasts minutes to hours
How long does the lucid period of an epidural hematoma last?
minutes to hours
What are epidural hematomas caused by?
Tears in the arteries of the brain, usually the middle meningeal arteries
What is a subdural hematoma?
Bleeding between the dura and the arachnoid mater