PTG 105-Exam 4-Neural 2

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kyleannkelsey
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217768
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PTG 105-Exam 4-Neural 2
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2013-05-05 01:49:10
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PTG 105 Exam Neural
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PTG 105-Exam 4-Neural 2
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  1. What is a mini stroke called?
    • Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)
    • Occurs when blood supply is briefly interrupted
  2. What are the manifestations of stroke?
    • sudden paralysis
    • Dysphagia/Aphasia
    • Confusion or loss of conciousness
  3. How is stroke diagnosed?
    • MRI
    • CT
    • Angiography
  4. What are the outcomes and their associated proportions for stroke?
    • 1/3 die
    • 1/3 live with serious defects
    • 1/3 recover
  5. What does stroke prognosis depend on?
    Amount and site of brain involved
  6. What are the symptoms of stroke?
    • Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arms or legs
    • Sudden inability to see in one or both eyes
    • Sudden speech issues
    • Sudden trouble with balance
    • Sudden severe headache
  7. Which is more common, arterial thrombosis or venous thrombosis of the brain?
    Arterial (100:1)
  8. What is the best treatment for stroke?
    Prevention
  9. What is the treatment for Ischemic strokes?
    Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)
  10. What would you treat with tissue plasminogen activator?
    Ischemic stroke
  11. What is the window of opportunity to treat a stroke?
    3 hours
  12. What can be done to treat dead brain tissue?
    Little, basically just physical therapy
  13. What is a TIA due to?
    • Atherosclerotic narrowing of the blood vessel
    • Small emboli that temporarily lodge
  14. How long do TIA attacks last?
    minutes to hours
  15. What are symptoms of TIA?
    • visual disturbances
    • transient paresis
    • sensory loss
  16. The blood deficit involved in a TIA usually resolves in what time period?
    24 hours
  17. What do TIAs indicate?
    • Future stroke
    • Serve as a warning for cerebrovascular accidents
  18. Where is a subarachnoid hemorrhage located?
    Beneath the arachnoid and above the pia mater
  19. What is the most common type of brain hemorrhage?
    Intracerebral hemorrhage
  20. What percent of hemorrhages are subarachnoid, subdural or extradural?
    30%
  21. Describe a Saccular aneurysm or a subarachnoid hemorrhage?
    Ruptured cerebral aneurysm that causes a stroke
  22. What type of hemorrhage can be described as a ruptured cerebral aneurysm that causes a stroke?
    • Saccular aneurysm
    • Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  23. What percent of the population has subarachnoid hemorrhage or saccular aneurysm?
    1%
  24. What is a predisposing condition for Saccular aneurysm and Subarachnoid hemorrhage?
    • Polycystic kidney disease
    • Can run in families
  25. What are symptoms of Saccular aneurysm and Subarachnoid hemorrhage?
    • Sudden:
    • severe headache
    • nausea
    • vomiting
    • neck stiffness
    • body weakness in certain areas
    • dysphagia
    • coma
    • death
    • loss of consciousness
  26. What is the death rate for Saccular Aneurysm and Subarachnoid hemorrhage?
    50% within hours to days
  27. How is Subarachnoid hemorrhage or Saccular aneurysm treated?
    If caught on time, clip the bleeding vessels surgically
  28. What is Epidural Hematoma?
    • Hemorrhage between the skull and the top layer of Dura
    • Due to middle meningeal artery damage
    • Secondary to skull fracture in temporal area
  29. What type of brain hematoma is secondary to skull trauma in the temporal region?
    Epidural Hemorrhage
  30. What is the presentation of Epidural hematoma?
    Lucid interval followed by progressive loss of consciousness
  31. What characteristic is special to epidural hematoma?
    Lucid period
  32. Describe the "lucid period" associated with Epidural hematoma:
    • Loss of consciousness or confusion is followed by a temporary improvement in condition then regression
    • Lasts minutes to hours
  33. How long does the lucid period of an epidural hematoma last?
    minutes to hours
  34. What are epidural hematomas caused by?
    Tears in the arteries of the brain, usually the middle meningeal arteries
  35. What is a subdural hematoma?
    Bleeding between the dura and the arachnoid mater

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