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What is the cause of Subdural Hematoma?
Tears in veins that cross the subdural space
What brain issue is caused by tears in the veins that cross the subdural space?
What are the predisposing factors for Subdural hematoma?
- Very young or old
- Use of blood thinners like Coumadin
- Alzheimer's or narcolepsy
An acute subdural hematoma usually presents with symptoms during what time?
The first 24 hours
A subacute subdural hematoma usually present with symptoms within what time period?
What are the symptoms of Subdural hematoma?
- Decreased consciousness
What can be done to treat subdural hematoma?
- Reduce ICP
- Respiratory and Circulatory support
What is a Concussion or contusion?
Injury to the brain due to trauma
What is a Concussion?
- transient loss of consciousness and widespread paralysis
- Sometimes w/seizures
- Usually recover w/o sequelae
What is the most minor and common type of brain injury?
What is a Contusion?
- Hemorrhages in superficial brain tissue by blunt trauma
- Bruising of the brain
What is Contusion associated with?
- Skull fracture
- Baby shaking
- Forced trauma
What type of injury is baby shaking?
What is a neural tube defect?
Congenital malformation like anencephaly and Spina bifida
What is spina bifida?
Defect in neural tube that allows nerves to protrude
What is the time period for surgical correction of spina bifida?
What are complications of spina bifida?
damaged nerves below the lesion, causing varying degrees of paralysis and incontinence
What is the most severe form of NTD?
What is the life expectancy of Anencephaly?
What is anencephaly?
- cephalic/head end of neural tube does not develop and brain, skull and scalp missing
- Infants born without the front part of the brain
What causes NTDs?
Not enough folic acid during pregnancy
How many cases of bacterial meningitis per year in the U.S.?
What are the two types of meningitis?
What s acute purulent meningitis?
What are the major bacteria involved in acute purulent memingitis?
- Staph pneumoniae
- Haemophilus influenzae
- Neisseria meningitidis
- Listeria monocytogenes
What bacteria is associated with epidemic meningitis?
What is the most serious type of meningitis?
What are the other terms for non-bacterial meningitis?
- Aseptic meningitis
- Acute viral meningitis
What is Aseptic meningitis usually due to?
What are the most common viruses to cause meningitis?
What is Meningismus?
Stiffening of the neck associated with meningitis
What is photophobia?
sensitivity to light
What are the symptoms of Meningitis?
- Severe headache
- Stiff neck
- Sensitivity to light
- Mental status changes
How is Meningitis diagnosed?
What is another name for CSF examination?
- Spinal tap
- Lumbar puncture
What do you look for in the CSF when concerned aboutmeningits?
- Increased lymphocytes and neutrophils
What is the treatment for bacterial meningitis?