PTG 105-Exam 4-Neural 3

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PTG 105-Exam 4-Neural 3
2013-05-05 01:49:59
PTG 105 Exam Neural

PTG 105-Exam 4-Neural 3
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  1. What is the cause of Subdural Hematoma?
    Tears in veins that cross the subdural space
  2. What brain issue is caused by tears in the veins that cross the subdural space?
    Subdural Hematoma
  3. What are the predisposing factors for Subdural hematoma?
    • Very young or old
    • Use of blood thinners like Coumadin
    • Alcoholism
    • Alzheimer's or narcolepsy
  4. An acute subdural hematoma usually presents with symptoms during what time?
    The first 24 hours
  5. A subacute subdural hematoma usually present with symptoms within what time period?
    2-10 days
  6. What are the symptoms of Subdural hematoma?
    • nausea
    • Headache
    • Confusion
    • Decreased consciousness
    • Dysphasia
    • Seizures
    • Coma
  7. What can be done to treat subdural hematoma?
    • Reduce ICP
    • Surgery
    • Respiratory and Circulatory support
  8. What is a Concussion or contusion?
    Injury to the brain due to trauma
  9. What is a Concussion?
    • transient loss of consciousness and widespread paralysis
    • Sometimes w/seizures
    • Usually recover w/o sequelae
  10. What is the most minor and common type of brain injury?
  11. What is a Contusion?
    • Hemorrhages in superficial brain tissue by blunt trauma
    • Bruising of the brain
  12. What is Contusion associated with?
    • Skull fracture
    • Baby shaking
    • Forced trauma
  13. What type of injury is baby shaking?
  14. What is a neural tube defect?
    Congenital malformation like anencephaly and Spina bifida
  15. What is spina bifida?
    Defect in neural tube that allows nerves to protrude
  16. What is the time period for surgical correction of spina bifida?
    24 hours
  17. What are complications of spina bifida?
    damaged nerves below the lesion, causing varying degrees of paralysis and incontinence
  18. What is the most severe form of NTD?
  19. What is the life expectancy of Anencephaly?
  20. What is anencephaly?
    • cephalic/head end of neural tube does not develop and brain, skull and scalp missing
    • Infants born without the front part of the brain
  21. What causes NTDs?
    Not enough folic acid during pregnancy
  22. How many cases of bacterial meningitis per year in the U.S.?
  23. What are the two types of meningitis?
    • Bacterial
    • Non-baterial
  24. What s acute purulent meningitis?
    Bacterial meningitis
  25. What are the major bacteria involved in acute purulent memingitis?
    • Staph pneumoniae
    • Haemophilus influenzae
    • Neisseria meningitidis
    • Listeria monocytogenes
  26. What bacteria is associated with epidemic meningitis?
    Neisseria meningitides
  27. What is the most serious type of meningitis?
  28. What are the other terms for non-bacterial meningitis?
    • Aseptic meningitis
    • Acute viral meningitis
  29. What is Aseptic meningitis usually due to?
  30. What are the most common viruses to cause meningitis?
  31. What is Meningismus?
    Stiffening of the neck associated with meningitis
  32. What is photophobia?
    sensitivity to light
  33. What are the symptoms of Meningitis?
    • Fever/chills
    • Severe headache
    • Stiff neck
    • Sensitivity to light
    • Mental status changes
  34. How is Meningitis diagnosed?
    CSF examination
  35. What is another name for CSF examination?
    • Spinal tap
    • Lumbar puncture
  36. What do you look for in the CSF when concerned aboutmeningits?
    • Bacteria
    • Increased lymphocytes and neutrophils
  37. What is the treatment for bacterial meningitis?