ANS and ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS

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ANS and ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS
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ANS ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
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test 7 endocrine system and the ans
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  1. what makes up the ANS
    • Autonomic sensory neurons
    • Integrating centers
    • Autonomic motor neurons
    • Enteric Division
  2. Somatic Nervous System
    • includes both sensory and motor neurons
    • conveys input from somatic (pain, thermal, tactile, and proprioceptive) and special senses (hearing, taste, sight, smell, equilibrium)
    • consciously percieved
    • innervate skeletal muscle and the effect is always excitation
  3. Autonomic Nervous system
    • main input comes from autonomic (visceral) sensory neurons
    • Autonomic neurons regulate visceral activites
    • sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
  4. preganglionic neuron
    • first of two motor neurons in any ANS pathway
    • the preganglionic neuron is is myelinated
  5. cell body of preganglionic neuron
    located in the brain or spinal cord
  6. autonomic ganglion
    where the preganglionic neuron axons lead to
  7. postganglionic neuron
    • axon has a small diameter but is unmylenated
    • leads to the effector
    • lies completely outside the CNS, cell body is contained in the autonomic ganglion
  8. dual innervation
    • receive impulses from both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons
    • nerve impulses from one stimulates and the impulses from the other inhibits
  9. sympathetic division
    • fight or flight division
    • majority of its output is directed at smooth muscle of blood vessels 
    • increases alertness and metabolic activities to prepare for emergency situation, physical activity, or stress
    • increases heart rate, faster breathing dilation of pupils, dry mouth, seaty but cold skin, constricting vessels to organs not invovled in stress
  10. parasympathetic division
    • rest and digest division
    • activities conserve and restore body energy during times of rest
    • majority of output is directed to smooth muscle and glandular tissue of the GI and respiratory systems
  11. Autonomic Plexuses
    • cardiac
    • pulmonary (bronchial tree)
    • celiac (abdomin)
    • superior mesenteric
    • inferior mesenteric
    • hypogastric
    • renal (abdomin)
  12. where are the cell bodies of sympathetic preganglionic neurons located
    in the lateral horns of the gray matter in the 12 thoracic segments and the first 2 lumbar segments of the spinal cord

    called thoracolumbar division
  13. where are the cell bodies of preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division located
    • in the nuclei of four cranial nerves in the brain stem (III, VI, IX, and X) and in the lateral gray horns of the second through fourth sacral segments of the spinal cord
    • craniosacral division
  14. axons of the sympathetic preganglionic neurons
    extend from white ramus communicantes into the sympathetic trunk ganglion giving off axon collaterals which terminate and synapse in several different ways
  15. ways the sympathetic preganglionic neurons synapse
    • in the first ganglion at the level of entry (1st ganglion it finds)
    • form sympathetic chains
    • form splanchnic chains
  16. sympathetic trunk ganglia
    • aka vertebral chain ganglia or prevertebral ganglia
    • lie in a vertebral row on either side of the vertebral column
    • extend from the base of the skull to the coccyx
    • postgaglionic neurons mostly innervate organs above the diaphragm
  17. sympathetic axon length
    because the sympathetic trunk is close to the spinal cord the preganglionic axons are short and the postganglionic axons are long
  18. sympathetic trunk ganglia divisions
    • superior cervical ganglia 
    • middle cervical ganglia
    • inferior cervical ganglia
  19. sympathetic chains
    • when an axon ascends or descends to a higher or lower ganglion before synapsing  with postganglionic neurons
    • fibers on which the ganglia are strung
  20. splanchnic nerves
    when an axon continues without synapsing through the sympathetic trunk ganglion to end at a prevertebral ganglion and synapse without postganglionic neurons there
  21. postganglionic neurons arise from the sympathetic trunk ganglia and do one of the following
    • returns via gray communicating rami to anterior ramus of the spinal cord
    • exit into nerve branches that supply the heart
    • exit trunk in nerves that enter plexuses that supplies blood vessels in that region
  22. celiac plexus
    • largest plexus that surrounds the celiac and superior messenteric arteries
    • goes to the liver, galllbladder, stomach, pancreaus, spleen, kidneys, adrenal gland, testes and ovaries
  23. superior messenteric plexus
    contains superior messenteric plexus and supplies the small and large intestine
  24. inferior mesenteric plexus
    • contains inferior mesenteric ganglion
    • which innervates the large intestine
  25. hypogastric plexus
    supplies pelvic viscera
  26. renal plexus
    contain the renal ganglion and supply the renal arteries within the kidney and the ureters
  27. prevertebral ganglia
    • lies anterior to the vertebral column and close to the large abdominal arteries
    • postganglionic neurons innervate organs below the diaphragm
  28. four major prevertebral ganglia
    • celiac ganglion
    • superior mesenteric ganglion
    • inferior mesenteric ganglion
    • aorticorenal ganglion
  29. celiac ganglion
    • on either side of the the celiac artery inferior to the diaphragm
    • splanchnic nerves from the thoracic area terminate here
  30. superior mesenteric ganglion
    • near the beginning of the superior mesenteric artery in the upper abdomin
    • innervate muscles of the blood vessels of the small intestine and proximal colon
  31. inferior mesenteric ganglion
    • near the beginning of the inferior mesenteric artery in the middle of the abdomen
    • lumbar splanchnic nerves lead into this and supply the blood vessels of the distal colon and rectum, urinary bladder, and genital organs
  32. aorticorenal ganglion
    near the renal artery as it branches from the aorta
  33. parasympathetic preganglionic neurons
    cell bodies are found in nuclei of the brain stem and in the lateral horns of the second through fourth sacral segments of the spinal cord
  34. parasympathetic preganglionic axons
    emerge as part of a cranial nerve or as part of the anterior root of a spinal nerve
  35. divisions of the parasympathetic system
    • cranial parasympathetic division
    • sacral parasympathetic division
  36. cranial parasympathetic division
    has axons in the 4 cranial nerves
  37. sacral parasympathetic division
    has axons in the S2-S4
  38. terminal ganglia
    • the place where preganglionic axons of the parasympathetic division synapse with postganglionic neurons
    • located close to or within the wall of the visceral organ
  39. parasympathetic preganglionic neuron length
    since the terminal ganglia is close to the organ  the neuron inntegrates the preganglionic neuron has very long axons
  40. terminal ganglia in the head
    • Cilary ganglia (III)
    • pterygopalatine ganglia (VII)
    • submandibular ganglia (IX)
    • otic ganglia (X)
  41. enteric division
    • specialized network of nerves and ganglia forming an integrated neuronal network within the wall of the GI tract, pancreas, and gallbladder
    • functions independently of the CNS but can also receive controlling input from the CNS]
    • sensory neurons send signals to the enteric ganglia
  42. plexuses of the enteric division
    • myenteric plexus 
    • submucosal plexus
  43. myenteric plexus
    • largest of the enteric plexuses
    • positioned between the outer longitudinal and circular muscle layers from the upper esophagus to the anus
    • communicates extensively with the submucosal plexus
  44. submucosal plexus
    • smaller of the two enteric plexuses
    • occupies the gut wall between the circular muscle layer and the mucularis mucosaw and runs from the stomach to the anus
  45. autonomic dysreflexia
  46. superior cervical ganglion
    • serve the head and the heart
    • sweat glands, smooth muscle of the eye, blood vessels of the face, lacrimal glands, nasal mucosa, salivary glands and the heart
  47. middle cervical ganglion
    innervates the heart
  48. inferior cervical ganglion
    innervates the heart
  49. white rami communicantes
    collections of myelinated white rami that connects the anterior ramus of the spinal nerve with the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk
  50. gray rami communicantes
    • structures containing postganglionic axons that connect the ganglia of the various portions of the sympathetic trunk ganglion to spinal nerves
    • axons are unmyelinated
    • outnumber the white rami because gray ramus leading to each of the pairs of spinal nerves that carries sympathetic output to the smooth muscle and glands of the bod
  51. greater splanchnic nerves
    • pierces the diaphramg and enters the celiac ganglion of the celiac plexus
    • made from preganglionic axons from the fifth through ninth or tenth thoracic ganglia
  52. lesser splanchnic nerves
    • pierces the diaphragm and passes through the celiac plexus to enter the aorticorenal ganglion and superior mesenteric ganglion of the superior mesenteric plexus
    • made from the preganglionic axons from the tenth and eleventh thoracic ganglia
  53. lowest splanchnic nerve
    • formed by preganglionic axons from the twelfth thoracic ganglia or a branch of the lesser splanchnic nerve
    • passes through the renal plexus near the kidney
  54. lumbar splanchnic nerve
    made from preganglionic axons from the first through fourth lumbar ganglia enter the inferior mesenteric plexus and terminate in the inferior mesenteric ganglion
  55. cilliary ganglia
    preganglionic axons pass with oculomotor nerves to the ciliary ganglia. postganglionic axons from the ganglia innervate smooth muscle fibers in the eyeball
  56. pterygopalatine ganglia
    receive preganglionic axons from the facial nerve and send postganglionic axons to the nasal mucosa, palate, pharynx, and lacrimal glands
  57. submandibular ganglia
    receive preganglionic axons from the facial nerves and send postganglionic axons to the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands
  58. otic ganglia
    they receive preganglionic axons from the glossopharyngeal nerves and sends postganglionic axons to the parotid salivary glands
  59. pelvic splanchnic nerves
    consist of the anterior roots of the second through fourth sacral nerves
  60. cholinergic neurons
    release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine or ACh
  61. cholinergic neurons in the ANS
    • all sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons
    • sympathetic postganglionic neurons that innervate most sweat glands
    • all parasympathetic postganglionic neurons
  62. cholinergic receptors
    integral membrane proteins in postsynaptic plasma membrane
  63. types of cholinergic receptors
    • nicotinic receptors
    • muscarinic receptors
  64. nicotinic receptors
    • present in plasma membranes of the dendrites and cell bodies of both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons and in the motor end plate of the neuromuscular junction
    • named because nicotine mimics these affects by binding to these receptors
    • causes depolarization
  65. muscarinic receptors
    • present in the plasma membrane of of all effectors (smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands) innervated by parasympathetic postganglionic axons
    • most sweat glands which receive their innervation from cholinergic sympathetic postganglionic neurons that possess muscarinic receptors
    • can sometimes cause depolarization or hyperpolarization
  66. adrenergic neruons
    • in the ANS these release noradrenalin
    • most sympathetic postganglionic neurons 
    • NE is synthesized and stored in synaptic vesicles and released by exocytosis
  67. adrenergic receptors
    bind NE and epinephrine
  68. types of adrenergic receptors
    • alpha receptors
    • beta receptors
    • NE stimulates alpha receptors more than beta receptors
  69. role of the hypothalamus
    gives us the fight or flight
  70. sympathetic responses
    • pupils of the eyes dilate
    • heart rate, force of heart contraction and blood pressure increase
    • airways dilate allowing faster movement of air into and out of lungs
    • blood vessels
    • liver cells perform glycogenolysis and adipose tissue cells and perform lipolysis
    • release of glucose by the liver increases blood glucose level
    • processes that are not essential for meeting the stressful situation are inhibited
    • longer lasting due to release of norepinephrine
  71. parasympathetic responses
    • rest and digest of SLUDD
    • salivation,lacrimation,urination,digestion,and defecation
    • parasympathetic responses support body functions that conserve and restore body energy during times of rest and recovery
  72. which system dominates
    in the quiet intervals between periods of exercise, parasympathetic impulses to the digestive glands and smooth muscle of gastrointestinal tract predominate over sympathetic impulses
  73. integration and control of autonomic functions
    receptor responds to stimulus and trigger impulses to the sensory neuron. sensory neuron conducts the nerve impulse from the receptor to the CNS. the integrating center relays the signal from the sensory neuron to the motor neuron. the motor neuron sends signal to the effector
  74. autonomic reflexes
    • responses that occur when nerve impulses pass over an autonomic reflex arc
    • play major role in blood pressure digestion defecation and urination
  75. ANS reflex arc
    same but is more spread out due to the branches of the postganlionic synapses
  76. endocrine system
    • releases hormones into the interstitial fluid and then into the blood stream
    • blood delivers the hormone to the effector
    • effectors use receptors to recognize hormones
  77. endocrine glands
    • releases hormones into the interstitial fluid and into the blood stream
    • does not have glands
  78. exocrine glands
    • secrete products into ducts that carry the secretions to the body cavities, into the lumen of an organ, or onto the outer surface of the body
    • produce sweat and mucous
  79. target cells
    • the effector of the hormone
    • hormones will only go to  and chemically bind to specific target cells due to receptors on that cell
  80. receptors
    a specific protein on the target cell that a hormone chemically binds to
  81. Pituitary gland
    • pea shapped structure that lies in the shpenoid bone
    • also called the hypophysis
    • secretes several hormones and controls other endocrine glands
    • controled by the hypothalamus
  82. hypothalamus
    • inferior to the thalamus
    • major integrating link between the nervous and endocrine systems
  83. infundibulum
    connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
  84. hormones made by the anterior pituitary
    • hGH
    • TSH
    • FSH
    • PRL
    • ACTH
  85. hGH
    • human growth hormone
    • aka somatotropin
    • secreted by somatotrophs
    • promote body growth and regulates metabolism along with stimulating the secretion of insulinlike growth factos
  86. TSH
    • thyroid stimulating hormone
    • aka thyrotropin
    • stimulates the secretion of thyroid hormones
  87. FSH
    • follicle-stimulating hormone
    • aka; luteinizing hormone
    • in females it initiates the secretion of estrogen and progesterone
    • in males it stimulates the testes to produce sperm and testosterone
  88. PRL
    • prolactin
    • initiates milk production in the mammary glands
  89. ACTH
    • adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • aka corticotropin
    • receives information from the brain and has action on the lymphic system, thalamus, and helps receive information from our internal organs
  90. how the hypothalamus controls the ANS
    regulates body temperature, thirst, hunger, sexual behavior, defense mechanisms, fear, rage, fight or flight
  91. clinical connections to the pituitary gland
    • pituitary dwarfism
    • gigantism
    • acromegaly
  92. pituitary dwarfism
    • hypo or under secretion of the pituitary gland
    • causes shortness
  93. gigantism
    • hyper or over secretion of the pituitary gland (hGH)
    • causes increased growth of the body
  94. acromegaly
    • hyper secretion in the pituitary gland of the hormone hGH causing the epiphesial plate to increase its growth in the bone
    • causes hands and feet and jaw to thicken and enlarge in adults
  95. Posterior pituitary
    • does not synthesize hormones but it stores and releases two hormones
    • controled by the hypothalamus
  96. hormones produced by the posterior pituitary
    • OT
    • ADH
  97. OT
    • oxytocin
    • during and afte delivery of a baby this hormone will target the mothers uterus and breast
    • causes the stretching of the uterus by enhancing contraction of smooth muscle cells in the wall of uterus
    • also stimulates milk ejection from the mammary glands
  98. ADH
    • antidiuretic hormone
    • aka vassopressin
    • decreases urine volume by causing sweating or increasing blood pressure by constricting arteioles
    • causes kidneys to release more water to the blood decreasing urine volume
  99. pineal gland
    • a small endocrine gland attached to the roof of the third ventricle of the brain and the midline
    • part of the epithalamus
  100. hormones secreted by the pineal gland
    melatonin
  101. melatonine
    • hormone of darkness
    • sets our biological clocks 
    • when we sleep this hormone is increased by 10 fold and begins to decrease just before we wake up
  102. clinical connections for the pineal gland
    SAD
  103. SAD
    • effects people with depression during winter months
    • get depressed due to lack of sun light
  104. Thyroid Gl and
    • butterfly shaped located inferior to the larynx
    • lateral lobes connected by isthmus
    • secrete T3 and T4
  105. thyroid hormones
    • T3 and T4
    • regulate oxygen use and basal metabolic rate
    • cellular metabolism and growth and development
  106. clinical connections to the thyroid gland
    • congenital hypothyroidism
    • myxedema
    • graves disease
    • exophthalmos
    • goiter
  107. congenital hypothyroidism
    • hyposecretion of thyroid gland
    • causing mental retardationand stunt bone growth
  108. myxedema
    • hyposecretion of thyroid gland
    • 5xs more likely in females
    • adema (collection of fluid in body)
  109. graves disease
    • hypothyroidism
    • 7-10xs more likely in females
  110. exophthalmos
    adema behind the eyes of someone who has graves disease causing a bulge
  111. goiter
    enlarged thyroid gland
  112. parathyroid gland
    partially embedded in the posterior surface of the lateral lobes of the thyroid gland
  113. hormones released by parathyroid gland
    PTH
  114. PTH
    • parathyroid hormone
    • increases the calcium and magnesium levels in our blood
  115. clinical connections of the parathyroid gland
    • hypoparathyroidism
    • hyperparathyroidism
  116. hypoparathyroidism
    • to little PTH
    • causes twitches and spasms and also contractures (maintained contractions of muscles)
  117. hyperparathyroidism
    • to much PTH
    • causing bones to become soft and easily breakable
  118. Adrenal glands
    • lies superior to each kidney 
    • has a flattened pyramidal shape
  119. adrenal medulla
    • inner region of the adrenal gland
    • develops from ectorderm
  120. hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla
    • epinephrine
    • noreepinephrine
  121. adrenal cortex
    • divided into three zones each of which secretes different hormones
    • zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and the zona reticularis
  122. zona glomerulosa
    • secrete mineralocorticoids
    • affect metabolism of minerals sodium and potassium
  123. zona fascuculata
    • part of the adrenal glands that releases glucocorticoids
    • affect glucose metabolism
  124. zona reticularis
    • synthesize small amounts of weak androgens 
    • have masculinizing  effects
  125. epinephrine
    • aka adrenaline
    • responsible for fight and flight
    • produces effects mimicing those of the sympathetic division
  126. norepinephrine
    • aka noradrenaline
    • responsible for fight or flight
    • produces effects that mimmic the sypathetic nervous system
  127. clinical connections to the adrenal glands
    • congenital adrenal hyperplasia
    • virilism masculazation
    • cushing's syndrome
    • addison's disease
    • pheochromocytomas
  128. congenital adrenal hyperplasia
    genetic disorder that prevents the enzyme needed for synthezation of cortisol
  129. virilism masculazation
    a female who has masculine features such as facial hair or atrophy of the breasts
  130. cushing's syndrome
    • tumor that develops on the adrenal gland that breaks down muscle protein and redistributes body fat
    • thin arms and legs, bruise very easily
  131. addison's disease
    • autoimmune (body attacks itself)
    • causes mental lephargy, anarexia, nausia, vommiting, weight loss, muscular weakness
  132. phecochromocytomas
    benine tumors that causes a prolonged fight or flight response continually high heart rate and blood pressure  and sweat
  133. pancreas
    • both an endocrine and exocrine gland 
    • flattened organ that is located posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach and consists of a head body and a tail
  134. islets of langerhans
    • endocrine portion of the pancreas
    • contain alpha, beta, delta and F cells
  135. alpha cells
    • raises blood glucose
    • secrete glucagon
  136. beta cells
    • lower blood glucose
    • secrete insulin
  137. delta cells
    • inhibit secretion of insulin
    • secrete somatostatin
  138. F cells
    • inhibit somatic sensory secretion of the gall bladder, contractions of the pancreas, and controls digestive enzymes
    • secretes pancreatic polypeptide
  139. clinical connections to the pancreas
    diabetes mellitus
  140. diabetes mellitus
    • caused by an inability to produce or use insulin
    • fourth leading cause of death in US
    • type 1: beta cells produce too little insulin, become insulin dependent, immune system is destroying beta cells
    • aka: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
    • type 2: non insulin dependent, more common than type 1 , 90% of diabetes cases, high glucose levels that can usually be controlled by diet, weight loss, and sometimes insulin
  141. ovaries
    female sex organs located in the pelvic cavity
  142. hormones made by the the ovaries
    • estrogen
    • progesterone
    • inhibin
    • relaxin
  143. estrogen
    • regulates womens menstral cycles, prepares the mammary glands for lactation
    • also responsible for the development and maintenance of female secondary sexual characteistics
  144. progesterone
    • maintains the females secondary gender characteristics
    • help prepare the mammary glands for lactation
  145. inhibin
    inhibits the secretions of FSH from the anteior pituitary
  146. relaxin
    • increases flexability of the pubic synthesis before birth
    • also produced by the placenta
    • helps dilate the uterine cervix during labor and delivery
  147. hormones produced by the testes
    • testosterone
    • inhibin
  148. testes
    male has two oval gonads
  149. testosterone
    stimulates descent of testes before birth, regulates production of sperm and stimulates the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics such as beard growth
  150. hormones produced by the GI tract
    • gastrin
    • GIP
    • secretin
    • CCK
  151. Gastrin
    promotes the secretion of gastric juices and promotes the secretions from the stomach and movement in the stomach
  152. GIP
    • glucose dependent insulinotropic peptide
    • stimulates the increase of insulin by the beta cells
  153. Secretin
    increases secretion of bile and digestive juices from the pancreas
  154. CCK
    • cholecystokinin
    • release of bile from the gall bladder and helps bring the feeling of fullness
  155. clinical connections to the GI tract
    • gastritis
    • ulcerative colitis
    • IBS
    • hypertension
    • asthma
    • rheumatoid arthritis
    • migrain headaches
    • anxiety
    • depression
  156. gastritis
    inflamation of the intesting
  157. ulcerative colitis
    ulcer forms in a part of the colon
  158. IBS
    irretal bowel syndrome
  159. hypertension
    high blood pressure
  160. asthma
    respiratory and tied to endocrine system due to hormones being released to regulate the breathing
  161. rheumatoid arthritis
    inflammed joints
  162. migraine headaches
    can be debillitating
  163. anxiety
    fear that something may happen
  164. hormones secreted by the placenta
    • hCS
    • hCG
    • estrogen
    • progesterone
  165. hCS
    • human chorionic somatomammotropin
    • development of the mammory glands for lactation
  166. hCG
    • human chorionic gonadotropin
    • stimulates the corpus luteum in the ovary to produce estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy
  167. hormones made in the kidneys
    • renin
    • EPO
    • calcitriol
  168. renin
    raises blood pressure by causing vasoconstriction and secretion of aldosterone
  169. EPO
    • erythropoietin
    • increases rate of red blood cell production
  170. EPO
    • active form of vitamin D
    • absorption of dietary calcium and phosphorus
  171. hormones made by the heart
    ANP
  172. ANP
    • atrial natriuretic peptide
    • decreases blood pressure
  173. hormones secreted by adipose tissue
    leptin
  174. leptin
    supresses appetite and may increase the activity of FSH and LH
  175. sensation
    the conscious or subconscious awareness of changes in the external or internal conditions of the body
  176. events that typically occur for a sensation to arise
    • stimulus
    • sensory receptor
    • conduction
    • integration
  177. stimulus
    change from the envirionment (external and internal)
  178. sensory receptors
    must convey the stimulus to nerve impulse
  179. conduction
    impulse is conducted along some neural pathway and taken to the brain
  180. integration
    the brain will integrate and will tell the body what is going on
  181. perception
    conscious awareness and interpretation of the sensation
  182. sensory modality
    unique type of sensation such as touch pain and temperature and vision
  183. adaptation
    • most sensory receptors can
    • receptors will adapt to the sensation (stay in the pool long enough and you will adapt)
  184. two classes of sensations
    • general senses
    • special senses
  185. general senses
    • somatic senses
    • visceral senses
  186. somatic senses
    sensations from body walls
  187. visceral senses
    sensations from the gut and organs
  188. special senses
    • your 5 senses
    • touch, taste, sight, vision, hearing
  189. three ways to group sensory receptors
    • structures of their secondary receptors
    • type of stimulus they detect
    • location of the receptors and the origin of the stimuli
  190. structure of sensory receptors
    • free nerve endings
    • encapsulated nerve endings
    • separate cells
  191. nocioceptor structure
    • free nerve endings
    • encapsulated nerve endings
    • separate cells

    these are receptors that respond to pain
  192. types of sensory receptors
    • photoreceptors
    • mechanoreceptors
    • thermoreceptors
    • osmoreceptors
    • chemoreceptors
    • nociceptors
  193. classifying receptors based on the time they take to adapt
    • rapid--> quick adaptation, smell, touch, pressure
    • slow--> body position
  194. photoreceptors
    detect light
  195. mechanoreceptors
    perceive or detect pressure, vibration, equilibrium, proprioception (awareness in body space)
  196. thermoreceptors
    • detect temperature
    • free nerve endings
    • cold and warm sensations are detected by seperate receptors
    • initially rapid and then slow
  197. osmoreceptors
    osmotic pressure of the body
  198. chemoreceptors
    detect smell and taste
  199. nociceptors
    • detect damage to tissue
    • slow
  200. sensory receptors defined by the location of the receptors
    • exteroceptors
    • interoceptors
    • prprioceptors
  201. exteroceptors
    • near the surface of the body
    • mostly receive external stimuli, vision, hearing, tate, vibration, pressure
  202. interoceptors
    monitor internal environment not conscious receptors except for pain and touch
  203. proprioceptors
    found in muscles and tendons, joints and inner ear, provide information about body position, muscle length, and tension, and the postion and movement of our joints
  204. merkel disc
    • type 1 cutaneous mechanoreceptor
    • second level of sensitivity
    • saucer shaped free nerve endings make contact with merkel cells in epidermis
    • have to press down a little more 
    • lots in finger tips and hands, lips and external genetalia
    • fine touch
    • slow
  205. nociceptor
    • first level of sensitivity
    • only fires if it is painful touch
    • found on skin and body surfaces
  206. messner corpuscle
    • type 3 level of sensitivity
    • fine touch
  207. ruffini corpuscle
    • heavy of deep touch
    • type 4 level of sensitivity
    • pain and muscles and tendons
    • type II cutanous mechanoreceptors
    • elongated encapsulated receptors located deep in the dermis and in ligaments and tendons
    • slow
  208. lamellated corpuscle
    • high frequency and pressure
    • type 5 level of sensitivity
    • oval layered capsule surrounds dendrites
    • present in dermis and subcutaneous layer, submucosal tissues, joints, periosteum, and some viscera
    • pressure, fast vibrations, and tickling
    • rapid
  209. tactile sensations
    touch
  210. crude touch
    touching something and knowing you are contacting something
  211. fine touch
    • gives ability to give specific information about what your are touching
    • size
    • shape
    • helps define what you are touching
  212. free nerve endings
    bare dendrites associated with pain, thermal, tickle, itch, and some touch sensations
  213. encapsulated nerve endings
    dendrites enclosed in a connective tissue capsule for pressure, vibration, and some touch sensations
  214. seperate cells
    recceptor cell synapse with first order sensory neurons located in the retina of the eye, inner ear, and taste buds of the tongue
  215. meissner corpuscles
    • 3rd in line for sensitivity
    • fin touch receptors
    • capsule surrounds mass of dendrites in dermal paillae of hairless skin
    • rapid
  216. hair root complexes
    • found near the skin
    • rapidly adapting touch receptors found in hairy skin, consist of free nerve endings wrapped around hair follicles
    • rapid
  217. somatic sensations arise from stimulation of sensory receptors embedded in
    • skin or subcutaneous layer
    • mucous membranes of the mouth, vagina, and anus
    • muscles, tendons, and joints
    • inner ear
  218. hair root complexes
    found near the skin
  219. itch
    • results from stimulation of free nerve endings
    • stimulation usually by chemicals

    mosquitos put chemicals in the skin during biting
  220. tickle
    • free nerve endings mediate tickle sensation
    • arises when someone else is touching you
    • we cant tickle ourselves because there is a part of the cerebellum that interprets that you are touching yourself and it inhibits your sensation
  221. cold receptors
    respond to temps between 50-105 degrees celcius
  222. warm receptors
    respond to temps between 90-118 degrees celcius
  223. what range with temperature cause pain
    below 50 and above 118 degrees
  224. pain sensation
    • pain is needed for survival
    • it serves a protection function by signaling the presence of noxious, tissue-damaging conditions
  225. types of panic
    • fast
    • slow
    • superficial somatic
    • deep somatic
    • visceral
  226. fast pain
    acute pain, not deep, like getting a shot
  227. slow pain
    • begins slowly and increases in intensity 
    • headache and toothache
  228. superficial somatic pains
    rises from the skin
  229. deep somatic pain
    rises from joints muscles or tendons
  230. visceral pain
    comes from the organs
  231. phantom pain
    loose a limb and still feel the pain in that lost limb
  232. referred pain
    • felt deep to the skin and underlying usually touches the organs
    • ex: heart attack is felt in the left arm and shoulder
  233. proprioceptive sensations
    awareness of body sensations and movements
  234. aspirin and ibprofuin of nocioceptors
    block the stimulation
  235. novacaine
    inhibits the conduction of nerve impulses along pain fibers
  236. morpheine
    lessens perception of pain in the brain
  237. kinesthesia
    same thing as proprioception
  238. weight distrbution
    applies to the distribution of weight that we use in certain body movements
  239. gamma motor neurons
    • integrate intrafusal muscle fiber, when stimulated the motor fiber will contract
    • maintains the sensitivity of the muscle spindle to stretching of the muscle
  240. intrafusal muscle fibers
    three to ten specialized muscle fibers partially enclosed in a spindle shaped connective tissue capsule that make up a muscle spindle
  241. extrafusal muscle fibers
    • ordinary skeletal muscle fibers
    • regular skeletal muscle fibers when stimulated the fibers will get into type 1 and type 2 levles of receptors
  242. alpha motor neurons
    • innervates extrafusal muscle fibers
    • cell bodies of both gamma and alpha motor neurons are located in the anterior gray horn of the spinal cord
  243. proprioceptive nerve impulses
    pass along ascending tracts in the spinal cord to the thalamus and from there to the somatosensory area of the cerebral cortex, proprioceptive impulses also pass along spinocerebellar tracts to the cerebellum
  244. balistic stretching
    • jumping up and down
    • not good for you
  245. static stretching
    • 30 seconds to 2 minutes allows you to stretch within normal limits of range of motion 
    • if you go beyond your normal limits of range of motion that stretching becomes balisctic
  246. pressure
    sustained sensation that is felt over a larger area than touch
  247. two types of rapidly adapting touch receptors
    • meissner corpuscles
    • hair root plexuses
  248. lamellated or pacinian corpuscles
    large oval structures composed of a multilayered connective tissue capsule that encloses a dendrite
  249. vibration
    results from rapidly repetative sensory signals from tactile receptors
  250. itch and tickle receptors
    • free nerve endings and lamellated corpuscles in skin and mucous membranes
    • itching and tickling
    • both slow and rapid
  251. muscle spindles
    • sensory nerve endings wrap around central area of encapsulated intrafusal muscle fibers within most skeletal muscles
    • muscle length
    • slow
  252. tendon organs
    • capsule encloses collagen fibers and sensory nerve endings at junction of tendon and muscle
    • muscle tension
    • slow
  253. joint kinesthetic receptors
    • lamellated corpuscles
    • type II cutaneous mechanoreceptors
    • tendon organs
    • and free nerve endings
    • joint position and movement
    • rapid
  254. posterior column tract
    • discriminative touch
    • proprioception
    • weight discrimination
    • vibration
    • first order neurons--> stay on same side
    • second order--> cross over and go into thalamus
  255. lateral spinothalmic tract
    pain and temperature
  256. anterior spinathlmic tract
    • itch
    • tickle
    • pressure
    • vibrations
    • crude and poorly localized touch sensations
  257. spinocerebellar tracts
    • proprioceptors in the trunk in lower limb or one side of the body to the same side of the cerebellum
    • informs cerebellum of actual movements allowing it to coordinate and refine skilled movements and maintain posture and balance
  258. lateral corticospinal
    conveys immpulses from motor cortex of cerebrum to skeletal muscles on opposite side of body for precise voluntary movements of distal part of free limbs
  259. anterior corticospinal
    conveys impulses from motor cortex to skeletal muscles on opposite side of the body for movements of trunk and proximal parts of free limbs
  260. corticobulbar
    conveys impulses from motor cortex to skeletal muscle of head and neck to coordinate precise voluntary movements
  261. rubrospinal
    conveys impulses from red nuclei to contralateral skeletal muscles that govern precise voluntary muscles of the distal parts of free upper limbs
  262. tectospinal
    conveys nerve impulses from the superior colliculus to contralateral skeletal muscles that reflexively move the head, eyes and trunk in response to visual or auditory stimuli
  263. vestibulospinal
    conveys nerve impulses from the vestibular nucleus to ipsilateral skeletal muscles of the trunk and proximal parts of the free limbs for maintaining posture and balance in response to head movements
  264. medial and lateral reticulospinal
    conveys nerve impulses from reticular formation to ipsilateral skeletal muscles of the trunk and proximal parts of the free limbs for maintaining posture and regulating muscle tone in response to ongoing body movements

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