Communications

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rnf
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217797
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Communications
Updated:
2013-05-05 05:00:35
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Communications
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Communications
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  1. components of communication
    • sources
    • receivers
    • encoding
    • decoding
    • messages
    • channel
    • noise
  2. noise
    anything that interferes with the communication process
  3. channel
    medium in which the message circulates
  4. Attribution Theory
    reading meaning into other people's behavior by attributing situational causes
  5. Cognitive Theory
    how information is managed in the mind, how it is organized to specify actions and how interactions with others shape thinking
  6. visualization techniques
    visualize what we need/want and it will come

    self-fulfilling prophecy
  7. demographic factors
    socioeconomic characteristics of a population expressed statistically
  8. Transactional Model
    similar to Shannon-Weaver model, but response back and forth
  9. Shannon-Weaver Model
    one way communication
  10. Trait Theory
    messages we produce have something to do with the type of person we are

    we may possess traits that either facilitate or hinder message production
  11. Cognitive Dissonance Theory
    when inconsistent ideas are brought to our attention, we feel physiological stress and work to reduce the stress
  12. Accommodation Theory
    how individuals in conversation start to mirror one another's behavior over time
  13. Social Exchange Theory
    social behavior is the result of an exhange process in which people weigh the potential benefits and risks of social relationships

    if the risks outweigh the rewards, people will abandon the relationship
  14. Social Constructivist Theory
    our knowledge of the world is derived from our interaction 

    knowledge is socially produced
  15. Johari Window
  16. rapid thought
    listeners can process information at a rate of 500 wpm, while speakers speak only 125 wpm 

    listeners are prone to their mind wandering
  17. mnemonic devices
    a formula or rhyme used as an aid in remembering
  18. listening
    deliberate process through which we seek to understand and retain information
  19. hearing
    automatically occurring process and requires no conscious effort
  20. Obstacles to Effective Listening
    (rt, mo, cd, gd, n)
    • rapid thought
    • message overload
    • cultural difference
    • gender difference
    • noise
  21. ethnocentrism
    one's own ethnicity at the center of importance
  22. ethics
    a set of moral standards or principles held by a society, group or individual
  23. organizational culture
    written and unwritten rules, norms and customs that reflect an organization's way of doing things
  24. ageism
    certain age category is inferior to another
  25. culture
    the process of communicating values, beliefs, norms, customs, codes and rules
  26. anxiety
    negative physiological symptoms during any perceived high-risk communicative situation
  27. co-cultures
    cultures alongside the dominant or parent culture
  28. relativism
    people vary in terms of how they think and behave based on what they believe and value
  29. ethical decisions
    (gr, pe, ik, ur, sm)
    • The Golden Rule
    • The Professional Ethic
    • Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative
    • The Utilitarian Rule
    • The 60 Minutes Test
  30. How would my actions be judged by my professional peers?
    The Professional Ethic
  31. Could our society continue to function if everyone acted this way?
    Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative
  32. Does this action do the most good for the most people over the greatest period of time?
    The Utilitarian Rule
  33. Would you be comfortable explaining your behavior on a television show?
    The 60 Minutes Test
  34. sexism
    one gender is superior to another
  35. self-concept
    stable set of perceptions each of us hold about ourselves 

    develops from interaction with others
  36. self-esteem
    the prevailing attitude one holds about one's self concept
  37. perceived self
    mental mirror

    how we see ourselves
  38. presenting self
    the self we present to fit into a situation or environment
  39. ideal self
    person we wish to be or a person who is self aware and trying to reconcile percieved self, presenting self, and ideal self into a real self
  40. reflected appraisal
    seeing ourselves through the eyes of others as well as in terms of our own images of an ideal self
  41. perception process
    selecting, organizing and interpreting environmental stimuli
  42. physical constructs
    people are classified according to their appearance
  43. psychological constructs
    people are classified according to their mental abilities
  44. group membership constructs
    people are classified according to the groups they belong
  45. stereotypes
    exaggerated generalizations based on a kernal of truth
  46. Knapp's Stages of Relationship Development {Coming Together}
    • initating
    • experimenting
    • intensifying
    • integrating
    • bonding
  47. Knapp's Stages of Relationship Development {Coming Apart}
    • differentiating
    • circumscribing
    • stangating
    • avoiding
    • terminating
  48. facilitative emotions
    appropriate expression of real emotions
  49. debilitative emotions
    negative emotions that prevent us from relating effectively
  50. self-disclosure
    willingness to share information, attitudes and feelings which give people insight into who we really are
  51. open self-concept
    negotiable self-concept, open to change, constantly evolving
  52. closed self-concept
    nonnegotiable, choices made to reinforce existing image of themselves, close themselves to opportunity, stagnant, living in the past
  53. open communicator
    consistently discloses and regulary seeks feedback
  54. blind communicator
    discloses excessively and rarely seeks feedback
  55. closed communicator
    rarely disclose and rarely seek feedback
  56. hidden communicator
    rarely disclose, but consistently seek feedback
  57. social comparison
    social and personal worth based on how we stack up against others
  58. perceptual schema
    congitive framework that facilitates the categorization of data we receive about others
  59. role constructs
    people classified according to social position
  60. interaction constructs
    social behavior (rude, helpful, friendly)
  61. perception checking
    description of behaviore, multiple interpretations of the behavior and a request for information that can help you interpret the behavior
  62. Nonlistening
    when one pretends to listen

    • psuedo listening
    • monopolizing
    • selective listening
    • defensive listening
    • ambushing
    • literal listening
  63. counterfeit emotions
    when one expresses emotion, but they do not actually decribe what one is feeling
  64. communication climate
    defensive and supportive behaviors lead to negative or positive communication climates
  65. self-fulfilling prophecy
    acting in ways that bring about expectations or judgments of ourselves
  66. group communication
    structured, goal-oriented communication in either a large or small group (3-12 people)
  67. forming {group development}
    small talk
  68. storming {group development}
    conflict
  69. norming {group development}
    norms are determined
  70. performing {group development}
    obstacles are overcome and cohesiveness is achieved
  71. opening {interview process}
    • build rapport
    • describe process toward fulfilling the purpose of interview
    • reveal timetable for utilizing the results
  72. body {interview process}
    follow a schedule of questions
  73. closing {interview process}
    closure and evalution of interview from each person's perspective
  74. employment interview
    selection interview conducted to evaluate the match between an organization and a potential employee
  75. patterns of group interaction
    • large groups:
    • chain or line
    • Y

    • small groups:
    • star
    • wheel
    • circle
  76. 70/30 Rule
    interviewer speaks 30% of the time, while the interviewee speaks 70% of the time, answering questions
  77. informational interview
    used to research a topic and to survey attitudes
  78. steps in writing and delivering speech
    • choose topic
    • narrow topic
    • research topic
    • organize
    • present
  79. informative organizational patterns
    (t,s,c)
    topical- 3-5 key areas with a running theme

    spatial- relies on space, direction or locale

    chronological - material arranged according to a sequence in time
  80. visual aid
    add clarity and interest and can act as proof for a major point and helps audience remember your speech
  81. audience analysis and adaptation
    determining whether a topic is suitable for your audience and adapting it, if it is not
  82. thesis statement
    tells the audience what to expect
  83. persuasive organizational patterns
    (ce, ps, mms, ca)
    cause-effect - certain events are a result of certain actions

    problem-solution- highlights a problem and suggests several possible solutions

    Monroe's motivated sequence - established unfulfilled need and then a means of satisfying it

    comparative advantages - compares several options and explains why one is superior
  84. conclusion
    two components: a review and memorable ending

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