Card Set Information
Exam 4 cards
What are the S&S of herpesvirus - HSV1 & HSV2?
Watery blisters in skin or mucous membranes
Lesions healing w/scab characteristic herpetic disease
HSV1 which produces most ___ ___ and HSV2 which produces most ___ ___ are ___ and ___.
HSV-1 and -2 are transmitted by what means?
Contact with an infectious area of the skin during re-activations of the virus.
Explain the life cycle of a cold sore
Sm hard, tingling spot on lip
Appearance of fluid filled blister
Blister breaks, releasing infectious virions
Yellow crust appears & peals off w/o scar
Cold sores caused by herpes generally clear up in ___-___ days w/o tx.
When is possibility of transmission of HSV1 highest?
Fr time blisters appear until they have completely dried and crusted over
After the primary herpes infection, the virus enters ___ ___ & becomes ___ in nearby sensory ___.
Name some factors that can cause a reactivation of HSV1 virus.
Stress ie fever, menstruation, emotional disturbance
Environmental factors ie exposure to UV ligt
How is HSV1 transmission limited or prevented?
No kissing during outbreak
Not touching other areas of body
A herpes infection of the eye is known as ___ ___, and can cause what eye inj's?
Scarring of the cornea leading to blindness
What is the primary route of transmission for genital herpes?
It is highly unlikely that a person could contract a herpes infection through contact with toilets or other objects used by an infected person. Why?
The virus dies quickly outside the body
What are common S&S of HSV2?
Itching or throbbing in genital area
Reddening, swelling, pain in small area
Blisters erupt, crust over & sores disappear
For many individuals infected by HSV2 becomes latent remaining in ___ ___ nr blisters. S&S are often reactivated by ___ ___ & can reappear ___ - ___ times/yr.
People w/active herpes lesions are highly ___ & can pass the virus during ___ ___.
Although there is no cure cure for genital herpes, ___ drugs such as acyclovir can do what?
Help heal sores & reduce recurrent infections
____ is caused by a brick-shaped, double stranded DNA virus of the ___ family.
Smallpox is transmitted via ___ ___.
The smallpox nucleocapsid is surrounded by a series of ___-___ ___ w/an ___.
What are the S&S of the earliest S&S of smallpox?
General body weakness
What is the incubation period for smallpox?
The early days of smallpox (days 1&2) are characterized by what S&S?
Rash occurs on tongue & in mouth
Sores develop & break open spreading to mouth & throat
Rash appears on skin - Face -> arms/legs -> hands/feet -> rest of body
Fever drops & person feels better
Day 3 of smallpox is characterized by what event?
Rash becomes raised bumps
Day 4 of the smallpox is characterized by raised bumps filling with ___, ___ fluid & have a ___ in the center. ___ often occurs again until ___ form over the bumps.
During the pustular rash stage of smallpox, which lasts about ___ days, what happens?
Bumps become pustules - sharply raised, round & firm to touch
Comparable to BBs under the skin
During the pustules & scabs stage of smallpox which lasts ___ days, pustules begin to form a ___ and then ___.
Within 3 weeks after the smallpox rash appears scabs begin to fall off leaving what behind?
Marks on the skin that become pitted scars
What are the 7 stages of smallpox?
Pustules & scabs
During which stage of smallpox is the patient most contagious?
The early rash stage
During what stages is a smallpox patient not contagious?
Monkeypox is a rare viral disease occuring mostly in ___ & ___ ___.
Central & West Africa
How is monkeypox transmitted?
Infected animal bite
Contact w/bodily fluids of infected animal
Lg resp droplets
Body fluids of sick person
Contaminated bedding or clothing
What are the S&S of monkeypox?
Swollen Lymph nodes
Rash progressing to pustules
Why are retroviruses particularly onerous?
The fact that they insert their genome directly into the host chromosome
Retroviruses use ___ ___ to transcribe their RNA to DNA
Generally, how do viruses cause cancer?
By viral DNA insertion into host chromosomes (lysogeny) either disrupting suppressor gene sequences or by adding to the number of stimulator genes
Turns your healthy cells into cancerous cells.
What are prions?
Infectious proteins in misfolded form
How do rhinoviruses and adenoviruses differ?
Rhinoviruses are a broad grp of over 100 different naked, icosahedral, ssRNA viruses where as adenoviruses are over 50 types of nonenveloped, icosahedral virions having dsDNA
Explain the "H" in influenza.
H short for hemaglutinin
Type of spike
Facilitates attachment & penetration
Shape determines host range & tropism
Explain the "N" in influenza virus strains.
N for neuraminidase
Type of spike
9 different subtypes
Protein assisting in release of virions fr host cell when replication complete
What are some animal vectors we discovered?
What does TORCH stand for?
Herpes simplex virus 2
The acronym ___ has been coined to focus attn on diseases w/congenital significance & induced by microbial teratogens.
A ___ is an agent that interferes w/the normal development of a fetus.
What is meant by epidemic?
Referring to a disease that spreads more quickly & more extensively within a population than normally expected
A ___ is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread through human populations across a large region; ie multiple continents, or worldwide.
___ refers to a disease that is constantly present in a specific region or area.
___ is a medical condition defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ.
___ is an RNA virus, usually spread by fecal-oral route; transmitted person-to-person by ingestion of contaminated food or water or through direct contact with an infectious person.
What are S&S of Hepatitis A?
What is tx for Hepatitis A?
No specific tx
Avoid fatty foods & alcohol
Eat well balanced diet
How can Hep A be prevented?
What are the 2 types of Hep A vaccine?
One containing inactivated Hep A virus
One containing live but attenuated virus
___ is an infectious inflammatory illness of the liver that affects hominoidea, including humans.
What are the S&S of Hep B virus?
Loss of appetite
How is Hep B transmitted?
Direct or indirect contact with body fluids
ie shared needles, improperly sterilized medical equipment
____ refers to the destruction or lysis of cells.
Hep B has a ___ incubation period of ___ ___ to ___ ___ during which time it infects the ___ but is not cytolytic.
T or F; Hep B can be prevented by immunization with any of several hep B vaccines.
Hep B vaccines consist of ___ produced by genetically engineered yeast cells.
Injections of interferon alpha-2b can be used to treat what infection?
Which hepatitis is an enveloped +ssRNA virus of the Flaviviridae family?
How is the Hep C virus transmitted?
IV drug Use
Accidentally thru medical intervention
What are 2 common complications of Hep C?
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)
Name 2 major cofactors that accelerate incidence of chronic hepatitis C.
IV drug use
___ ___ & ___ are standard therapies for Hepatitis C.
What vaccine is available for Hepatitis C?
What 2 viruses cause Hepatitis D?
HBV & HDV
HDV consists of a protein fragment called ___ ___and a segment of ___ & can only cause liver damage when ___ is present.
HDV requires an outside coat of what to infect cells?
One cannot become infected w/hepatitis D unless he or she os already infected w/___.
T or F; The vaccine for hepatitis B protects against hepatitis D virus because of the latter's dependence on the presence of hepatitis B virus for it to replicate .
Which hepatitis is an opportunistic emergent disease caused by naked, +ssRNA virus of the Caliciviridae family.
What is the route of transmission of Hepatitis E?
Indirectly thru water
What is the Tx of Hepatitis E?
No specific tx
Avoid fatty foods & alcohol
Eat well balanced diet
Who are particularly susceptible to Hepatitis E?
Pregnant women in developing nations
What are the S&S of Hepatitis E?
Low grade fever
Which virus is a -ssRNA virion of the Rhabdoviridae family w/only 5 genes in its genome?
What does the rabies virus look like?
A bullet - rounded @ one end & flattened at the other
A majority of rabies cases come fr which 2 animals?
Bats and Raccoons
How is rabies transmitted?
Via a bite fr a rabid animal
What are the S&S of a rabies infection?
Tingling, burning, coldness at a bite site
What are treatments for rabies virus?
Rabies immune globulin
Which virus is part of the Picornaviridae family and composed of naked-icosahedron shaped capsid containing a +ssRNA genome.
How does the polio virus enter the body?
Contaminated food and water
What are the S&S of polio?
When polio passes through the blood stream and into the meninges it causes ___ & if it affects the medulla of the brain it is called ___ polio.
What are the 3 types of polio?
Type 1 causes major # of epidemics & sometimes paralysis
Type 2 occurs sporadically but invariably causes paralysis
Type 3 usually remains in the intestinal tract
What are the names, what they are made of and routes of the 2 polio vaccines?
Sabin vaccine - attenuated poliovirus - oral
Salk vaccine - inactivated virus - IM
Both polio vaccines are said to be trivalent. What does this mean?
They contain all 3 strains of the virus
What was the one major drawback to the Sabin vaccine?
It being a live vaccine, a few cases of vaccine-caused polio occurred
Since there is no cure for polio, what is the focus of care?
Providing relief of symptoms
Analgesics for pain
Ventilators for breathing support - Iron lung
Who did work with yellow fever?
Patients w/___ fever often report intense muscle and joint pain, sensations like their bones are breaking; thus the disease has been called ___ ___.
S&S of ebola/marburg hemorrhagic fevers include what?
What is the vector of hemorrhagic fever?
What is caused by the rhinovirus?
Common Head Cold
Why could smallpox be utilized for bioterrorism.
B/c the US on a whole ceased vaccination against smallpox in 1972
Which viruses cause cancer and what cancer do they cause?
Human Papilloma Viruses - cervical cancer
HBV/HCV - Liver cancer
Human herpes virus - Kaposi sarcoma