Health—Carbs, Fats, & Proteins

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Author:
ashleycortes
ID:
217848
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Health—Carbs, Fats, & Proteins
Updated:
2013-05-06 01:17:36
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health
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Description:
Miscellaneous study questions that are not vocabulary. Based on notes. On chapter 7, chapter 8, and environment pages. Test on Monday, 6 March 2013.
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  1. What are the 3 basic needs in a healthy diet?
    • supply energy
    • tissue repair
    • regulate metabolism (convert food to energy)
  2. What are the 6 classes of nutrients?
    • Carbohydrates
    • Fats
    • Proteins
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Water
  3. What are the 2 basic principles of a healthy diet?
    • Eat a variety of foods from each class.
    • Eat in moderation.
  4. Define kilocalorie (kcal).
    a unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water by 1 degree (Celcius)
  5. How many kcal are in 1 gram of carbohydrates?
    4
  6. Define complex sugar.
    the basic energy source for the body
  7. Define glucose.
    The simplest form of sugar that is stored in the liver and in muscle tissue
  8. Define glycogen.
    a long chain of glucose that is in muscle tissue
  9. When high amounts of carbohydrates are consumed, how is the excess stored as?
    As fat
  10. Carbohydrates are the primary source of _____ and  _____.
    • energy
    • brain and blood stream cells
  11. Regular intake of liver glycogen is used up in [how long?]
    • 18 hours
    • [This is why you need to eat breakfast.]
  12. What happens when no carbohydrates are consumed?
    • health problems
    • diet is not supplied
    • the body is forced to make carbohydrates from proteins
    • fat is burned for energy
    • creates keton bodies
  13. What do keton bodies do?
    • makes blood acidic
    • causes dehydration
    • may lead to fatal coma
  14. Name 3 simple sugars.
    • Fructose
    • Glucose
    • Galactose
  15. Name the 3 combinations of simple sugars.
    • Glu + Gala = lactose (milk
    • Glu + Fru = sucrose (sugar)
    • Glu + Glu = maltose (alcohol)
  16. What does ADA stand for?
    American Dietetic Assocation
  17. ADA recommends _____.
    at least 800 mg of carbohydrates daily for 3 days before a high energy sports activity
  18. Define dietary fiber.
    roughage; a portion of plant foods that can't be digested
  19. How many grams do women have to consume? How many for men?
    • 25
    • 17
  20. How do you avoid fiber overload?
    Drink lots of water.
  21. Describe digestion.
    • Simple carbohydrates—>mouth
    • complex carbohydrates—>stomach, small&large intestines—>through liver [down, leeeft, down]—>glycogen/glucose
  22. How many kcal are in 1 gram of protein?
    4
  23. Define amino acid (AA).
    • an organic nitrogen compound
    • the simplest form of proteins
  24. Proteins are a necessary component for _____, _____, _____, _____, _____, and _____.
    • hormones
    • enzymes
    • blood transport system
    • blood clotting
    • cell repair
    • fluid balances
    • visual processes
  25. Proteins are not a significant source of _____.
    energy
  26. How many essential AAs are there? How many non essential AAs are there?
    • 9 [complete proteins]
    • 11 [body can produce, disposable, okay as long as right ingredients are presen]
  27. Define protein quality.
    ratio of EAA to NEAA
  28. How many calories are in 1 gram of fat.
    9
  29. Define fatty acid.
    • a long carbon chain linked together and flanked by hydrogen
    • Or lipid (most concentrated food energy source)
  30. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are necessary for _____.
    healthy skin and hair
  31. Fats ____ and ____ the body's organs against ____ and ____.
    • insulate
    • protect
    • trauma
    • exposure to cold
  32. Compare saturated and unsaturated fats. [3 differences]
    • Saturated: solid at room temperature, made up of single bonds, can't be broken down
    • Unsaturated: liquid at room temperature, made up of double bonds, can be broken down [ie. oils]
  33. EFAs help ____, ____, ____, and ____.
    • immune processes
    • vision
    • form cell structures
    • hormones
  34. Name 2 benefits of EFAs.
    • low risk of heart attack—>
    • reduce blood clotting
  35. What are the symptoms of fat deficiency?
    • flaky and itchy skin
    • diarrhea
    • growth and wound healing retarded
    • amenia
  36. What are the symptoms of fat toxicity?
    • blood clotting impaired
    • uncontrolled bleeding
    • stroke
  37. What is good cholesterol? What is bad cholesterol?
    • HDL (high density lipoprotein)
    • LDL (low density lipoprotein)
  38. How many glasses of water should you drink a day?
    8
  39. For each quart of perspiration, _____ Kcal is burned.
    600
  40. Water forms ____ in the bloodstream.
    intracellular fluids
  41. ____ and ____ inhibit action and ADH.
    • Alcohol
    • caffeine
  42. What does ADH stand for?
    anti diuretic hormone
  43. Name a symptom of drinking too much water.
    blurred vision

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