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What are the 3 basic needs in a healthy diet?
- supply energy
- tissue repair
- regulate metabolism (convert food to energy)
What are the 6 classes of nutrients?
What are the 2 basic principles of a healthy diet?
- Eat a variety of foods from each class.
- Eat in moderation.
Define kilocalorie (kcal).
a unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water by 1 degree (Celcius)
How many kcal are in 1 gram of carbohydrates?
Define complex sugar.
the basic energy source for the body
The simplest form of sugar that is stored in the liver and in muscle tissue
a long chain of glucose that is in muscle tissue
When high amounts of carbohydrates are consumed, how is the excess stored as?
Carbohydrates are the primary source of _____ and _____.
- brain and blood stream cells
Regular intake of liver glycogen is used up in [how long?]
- 18 hours
- [This is why you need to eat breakfast.]
What happens when no carbohydrates are consumed?
- health problems
- diet is not supplied
- the body is forced to make carbohydrates from proteins
- fat is burned for energy
- creates keton bodies
What do keton bodies do?
- makes blood acidic
- causes dehydration
- may lead to fatal coma
Name the 3 combinations of simple sugars.
- Glu + Gala = lactose (milk
- Glu + Fru = sucrose (sugar)
- Glu + Glu = maltose (alcohol)
What does ADA stand for?
American Dietetic Assocation
ADA recommends _____.
at least 800 mg of carbohydrates daily for 3 days before a high energy sports activity
Define dietary fiber.
roughage; a portion of plant foods that can't be digested
How many grams do women have to consume? How many for men?
How do you avoid fiber overload?
Drink lots of water.
- Simple carbohydrates—>mouth
- complex carbohydrates—>stomach, small&large intestines—>through liver [down, leeeft, down]—>glycogen/glucose
How many kcal are in 1 gram of protein?
Define amino acid (AA).
- an organic nitrogen compound
- the simplest form of proteins
Proteins are a necessary component for _____, _____, _____, _____, _____, and _____.
- blood transport system
- blood clotting
- cell repair
- fluid balances
- visual processes
Proteins are not a significant source of _____.
How many essential AAs are there? How many non essential AAs are there?
- 9 [complete proteins]
- 11 [body can produce, disposable, okay as long as right ingredients are presen]
Define protein quality.
ratio of EAA to NEAA
How many calories are in 1 gram of fat.
Define fatty acid.
- a long carbon chain linked together and flanked by hydrogen
- Or lipid (most concentrated food energy source)
Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are necessary for _____.
healthy skin and hair
Fats ____ and ____ the body's organs against ____ and ____.
- exposure to cold
Compare saturated and unsaturated fats. [3 differences]
- Saturated: solid at room temperature, made up of single bonds, can't be broken down
- Unsaturated: liquid at room temperature, made up of double bonds, can be broken down [ie. oils]
EFAs help ____, ____, ____, and ____.
- immune processes
- form cell structures
Name 2 benefits of EFAs.
- low risk of heart attack—>
- reduce blood clotting
What are the symptoms of fat deficiency?
- flaky and itchy skin
- growth and wound healing retarded
What are the symptoms of fat toxicity?
- blood clotting impaired
- uncontrolled bleeding
What is good cholesterol? What is bad cholesterol?
- HDL (high density lipoprotein)
- LDL (low density lipoprotein)
How many glasses of water should you drink a day?
For each quart of perspiration, _____ Kcal is burned.
Water forms ____ in the bloodstream.
____ and ____ inhibit action and ADH.
What does ADH stand for?
anti diuretic hormone
Name a symptom of drinking too much water.