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What are the units (MKS) of each of the following?
5. Work & Energy
- 1. Meter (m)
- 2. Kilogram (kg)
- 3. Newton (N)
- 4. Second (s)
- 5. Joule (J)
- 6. Watt (W)
Give the prefix and abbreviation for each of the following powers.
- 1. Giga (G or B)
- 2. Mega (M)
- 3. Kilo (k)
- 4. Centi (c)
- 5. Milli (m)
- 6. Micro (µ)
- 7. Nano (n)
- 8. Pico (p)
Put the followung in standard scientific notation:
3. 103 * 102
4. 0.103 * 10-4
5. (2 * 106)(9 * 102)
6. (1 * 104)/(2 * 107)
- 1. 1.03 * 102
- 2. 1.23456 * 105
- 3. 1.03 * 104
- 4. 1.03 * 10-5
- 5. 1.8 * 109
- 6. 5 * 10-4
1. (6 * 103)2 =
2. (3 * 102) + (3 * 103) =
Given the following right triangle, state the trigonometric functions:
1. sinθ =
2. cosθ =
3. tanθ =
- 1. sinθ = opposite/hypotenuse = y/h
- 2. cosθ = adjacent/hypotenuse = x/h
- 3. tanθ = opposite/adjacent = y/x
(SOH CAH TOA)
What are the sin and cos values for the following angles?
- 1. Sin = 0 Cos = 1
- 2. Sin = 1 Cos = 0
- 3. Sin = 1/2 Cos = (31/2)/2
- 4. SIn = (31/2)/2 Cos = 1/2
- 5. Sin = (21/2)/2 Cos = (21/2)/2
- 6. Sin = 0 Cos = =1
1. What is the difference between a scalar quantity and a vector quantity?
Are the following scalar or vector quantitues?
2. Distance, speed, and mass.
3. Displacement, velocity, and force.
- 1. A scalar quantity has magnitutde but no direction. A vector quantity has magnitude and direction.
- 2. Scalar quantities
- 3. Vector quantities
Given the above, what would the following look like?
1. A + B + C
2. A - B + C
3. A - B- C
1. (T/F) The sum of two vector is the resultant of the vectors.
A person walks 2 miles north and then turns around and walks 3 miles south. Total time elapsed = 1 hour.
2. Distance (d) =
3. Displacement (∆x) =
4. Average velocity (v) =
5. Average speed (s) =
- 1. True
- 2. d = 2+3 = 5 miles
- 3. ∆x = 2 miles(N) - 3 miles(S) = 1 mile(S)
- 4. v = ∆x / ∆t = 1 mile /1 hour = 1 mile/hour (S)
- 5. s = d/ ∆t = 5 miles / 1 hour = 5 miles/hour
1. Average acceleration (a) =
For a body under constant acceleration:
2. v =
3. ∆x =
4. v2 =
5. (average) v =
- 1. a = ∆v / ∆t
- 2. v = v0 + at
- 3. ∆x = v0t + (at2)/2 = (average)vt = [(v0 + v)/2]t
- 4. v2 = v02 + 2a(x - x0)
- 5. (average) v = [(v0 + v)/2]
1. Is weight a vector or scalar quantity? What is the formula for calculating weight?
2. What are Newton's Three Laws of Motion?
3. What are the formulas for the initial horizontal and vertical velocities of a projectile launched with speed v at an angle of θ to the horizontal?
4. What does the total horizontal distance, x, traveled by a projectile equal?
- 1. Weight is a vector quantity. Weight = mass * gravity
- 2. (1) A body in motion with constant velocity in a straight line path or at rest will remain that way unless a net force acts upon it.
- (2) Force = mass * acceleration = ma
- (3) To every force there is always an equal and opposite force.
- 3. The horizontal velocity is vcosθ, and the vertical velocity is vsinθ
- 4. x = (initial horizontal velocity)(time in air)
!. What is the formula for gravitational force? F =
2. If distance between two objects is doubled, by how much is the force of gravity increased or decreased?
3. (T/F) A body in translational equilibrium has a net force moving it at a constant velocity.
4. If a lever arm is halved, by how much does the troque increase or decrease?
- 1. F = (Gm1m2)/r2
- 2. The force would decrease by a factor of 4 (22)
- 3. False, a body in translational equilibrium has no net force acting on it.
- 4. The torque would decrease by half
1. What is the formula for calculating torque? τ =
2. When calculating torque, which rotation direction is considered positive and which negative?
3. (T/F) For rotational equilibrium to occur, the sum of all torques acting on a body must be zero.
4. What is translational motion?
- 1. τ = rFsinθ (r = distance between force and axis of rotation)
- 2. Counterclockwise is positive. Clockwise is negative.
- 3. True
- 4. Translational motion is defined as motion in which the position of the obkect's center of mass changes as a function of time.
Which vector (1 or 2) represents the nornal force and which the weight?
3. What is the formula for the force of static fristion?
4. What is the formula for the force of kinetic friction?
- 1. Normal force (N).
- 2. Weight
- 3. fs ≤ μsN (μs = coefficient of static friction)
- 4. fk = μkN (μk = coefficient of kinetic friction)
1. What is the formula for centripetal acceleration (for a body in uniform circular motion)? a =
2. What is the formula for centripetal force (for a body in uniform circular motion)? F =
3. (T/F) For a planet orbiting a star, the centripetal force is equal to the gravitational force.
- 1. a = (velocity)2/ radius = v2/r
- 2. F = mass * acceleration = (mv2)/r
- 3. True
1. What is the formula for work? W =
2. What is the unit of work?
3. What is the formula for power? P =
4. What is the unit of power?
- 1. W = Force * distance * cosθ = Fdcosθ
- 2. The unit of worker is the Joule (N*m)
- 3. P = Work/time = W/t
- 4. The unit of power is the Watt (1 Joule/sec)
1. What is the formula for kinetic energy? KE =
2. What are the units of KE?
3. What is the formula for gravitational potential energy? U=
4. What are the units of gravitational potential energy?
- 1. KE = [(mass)(velocity)2]/2 = (mv2)/2
- 2. The units of KE are joules.
- 3. U = mass * gravity * height = mgh
- 4. The units of GPE are joules
1. (T/F) The total mechanical energy of a body is the sum of its kinetic and potential energy.
2. Is total mechanical energy a constant if the only forces that act on a body are conservative (E = K + U = constant)?
3. What is the change in energy of a system if only conservative forces act upon it?
- 1. True
- 2. Yes, E = K + U = constant
- 3. If only conservative forces act on a body, then ∆E = 0
1. What is the formula for momentum? p =
2. What is the formula for impulse J? J =
- 1. p = mass * velocity = mv
- 2. J = Force * time = Ft = mv - mv0 = ∆p
1. Is kinetc energy conserved in a completely elastic collision?
2. (T/F) Net external force must equal zero for conservation of momentum to occur.
3. What is the formula for the center of mass for two masses, m1 and m2, lying along the x-axis at points x1 and x2? X =
4. (T/F) Momentum is not conserved in an inelastic collision.
- 1. Yes, kinetic energy is concerved in a completely elastic collision.
- 2. True.
- 3. X = (m1x1 + m2x2)/(m1 + m2)
- 4. False, momentum is conserved in both elastic and inelastic collisions