Tech2601 Final

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oaboss
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217851
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Tech2601 Final
Updated:
2013-05-05 15:19:20
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Nuclear Geothermal Solar Hydro Wind Other
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Tech2601
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  1. How to reduce Footprint?
    • -Recycle
    • -Public Trans
    • -
  2. What component in car's exhaust reduces greenhouse gases?
    Catalytic Converter
  3. Which continent will be most affected by climate Change?
    -Africa
  4. Laminar vs. Turbulent?
    Laminar is a steady flow of air.
  5. define fusion and fuels
    • -Small nuclei are combined through enormous temp. and press.
    • -Isotopes of Hydro: 2H, 3H
  6. Define fission and fuels?
    • Define:
    • -Large nuclei are split into small nuclei
    • Fuels:
    • -Uranium
    • --U235-The most common:Only Fissionable isotope
    • --U238
    • -Plutonium
    • --Generated from U238
    • --Really Fast!!!
    • --
  7. Where do Hydrogen Isotopes come from?
    -Deuterium
    -Tritium
    • Deuterium
    • -1 proton, 1 neutron
    • -Abundant in oceans
    • Tritium
    • -1 proton, 2 neutrons
    • -extremely rare
    • -Produced in reactors by neutron activation of lithium 6
  8. Principles of U235
    • U235
    • -Easily captures a Slow Neutron
    • ---Forms U236
    • --Reactor Fuel typically "enriched to ~3% U235
  9. Principles of U236
    • U236
    • -Unstable
    • -Immediatley fissions into 2 nuclei
    • -Releases energy and neutrons
  10. Principles of U238
    • U238
    • -Does not easily capture slow neutrons
    • -not a good nuclear fuel
    • -Better at capturing fast neutrons which yields plutonium fuel
  11. Components of Power Plant
    • Reactor Container
    • Cooling Tower
  12. Types of Reactors
    -Light Water
    • United States
    • Boiling Water (BWR)
    • Pressurized  Water (PWR, Three Mile Island)
  13. Types of Reactors
    -RBMK
    RBMK (Societ Union, Chernobly)
  14. Types of Reactors
    -Breeder
    • France, Russia, Japan
    • -U238 blanket captures fast neutrons converts to PU239
  15. Reactor Components?
    • Fuel
    • -Powder baked into pellet form
    • Control Rods
    • -Neutron absorbing material:Cadmium, Hafnium or boron
    • -Inserted or withdrawn from core
  16. Light water Reactors
    PWR Vs. BWR
    • -Water Moderator
    • --Provides cooling for fuel rods
    • -- Due to this, design is very stable
    • -- Slows neutrons
    • -- All 'Merica's reactors are this type
  17. Containment Building and Pressure Vessel
    • Containment Building
    • -Structure around core
    • Pressure Vessel
    • -Series of tubes holding fuel and coolant
  18. RBMK Reactor Types (Chernobyl)
    • -Initially designed for plutonium Production
    • Components
    • -Individual fuel channels
    • -Easy swap isolated fuel assemblies for fuel replenshiment
    • -Graphite moderator/and water coolant
    • --Graphite does not respond to increased pressure!!!!
  19. Breeder Reactor(France, Russia, Japan)
    -FBR
    • -Core of Fissionable Plutonium, PU239
    • -Work at high temperature
    • -Liquid Sodium coolant
    • -Not equipped with a moderator
  20. Describe Storing of Spent Fuel Rods
    • Water-Pool: Under~20 ft; 95% stored on site
    • Dry Cask: ~1 year after pool put into metal cask

    *Casks work well; pools remain weak
  21. Yucca Mountain (nuclear)
    • Waste repository site
    • Nevada test site
    • Controlled by U.s AIr Force and  BLM and DOE
    • Concerns: Waste seeps into underground water; mountains seismic activity
  22. 3 mile island- 1979
    • Human Error
    • -Backup pumps left valves off
    • -Core over heats
    • -Relief valves stuck open
    • -Fuel rods rupture and pellets melt
    • -Fuel rod casing created hydrogen gas
    • --2.23 mil gals contaminated
    • --2 milliion people exposed;1-50% annual radiation dosage
  23. Chernobyl-1986
    Pripyat, Ukraine
    • Mechanical Failure
    • -Fuels rods MELT
    • -STEAM EXplosion
    • -Ruptures coolant tubes
    • -Hole in Roof
    • -Graphite Moderator Catches Fire
    • -Radioactive Ash
    • --xenon/krypton gasses, Iodine vapor and dust, Cesium/tellurium dust;50 dead
    • --Chernobyl Heart-Birthdefect
    • --Increase in Thyroid Cancer
  24. Chernobyl COntinued: Designer Flaws
    Graphite tips on control rod speeds up reaction
  25. Fukushima- 2011
    Japan
    • Natural Disaster
    • -Entire plant flooded
    • -reactors overheat from continuation of radioactive decay
    • -Water level in water pools dropped
    • -Cesium levels high
    • -food ban from radioactive junk
    • -Health and enviro TBD
  26. Geothermal
    Geo=Earth
    Thermal=Heat
    • Origin=Core: decay of radioactive material
    • - Mantle
    • - Covered by crust
    • - Junctions of tectonic plates, regions of earthquakes and volcanoes
    • - Magma: hot molten rock
  27. Geothermal Sources
    - High
    - Med
    - Low
    • High: geothermal reservoirs
    • Medium: hot springs
    • Low: mean surface temp
  28. Geothermal Electricity
    • - Dry steam
    • -- Very little water
    • -- Piped directly into dry steam power plant
    • -- Spins turbine generator
    • - Hot water
    • -- 150 - 370 degrees C
    • -- Production electricity in a flash power plant
    • -- Water to surface through production well
    • -- Released from pressure, some flashes into steam, powers turbines
    • - Hot water
    • -- 120-180 degrees C
    • -- Electricity in binary power plant
    • -- Through heat exchanger
    • -- Transfers heat exchange to second liquid (BINARY) with low boiling point
    • --  Flashes to vapor, spins turbine
    • -- Reused repeatedly
  29. Thermal Applications
    • - Hot water
    • - Primary space heating
    • - health spas
    • - greenhouses
    • - heating/drying processes: pasteurize milk, dry lumber
    • - Geothermal heat pumps: constant temperature (55) used as heat sink and heat source
  30. US Geothermal Potential
    • - Direct uses: midwest
    • - Power plant uses: west/northwest (Cali, Washington)
    • - Heat Pumps: everywhere
  31. Geothermal Summary
    • - Environmental Impacts
    • -- waste hot water
    • -- Large quantities of fresh water
    • -- Land subsidence
    • -- Release of hydrogen sulfide
    • - Advantages
    • -- Low emissions
    • --Continuous
    • - Limitations
    • -- Availability; quality of heat; remote locations
    • -- Steam is depletable
    • -- Relative cost (deposits, drilling)
  32. AC vs DC
    • - AC
    • -- alternating current
    • -- Nikola Tesla, George Westinghouse
    • -- Grid
    • -- Can easily be "stepped up"
    • - DC
    • -- Thomas Edison
    • -- Direct current
  33. Grid management
    • -Has zero electrical energy storage capacity
    • - power generated = power consumed AT ALL TIMES
    • - Renewables present challenge
  34. Solar (Solar Thermal)
    • - Harnessing sun's heat and energy
    • -- space heating
    • -- cooking/food drying
    • -- water heating
    • -- "solar thermal electric"
  35. Solar Thermal continued
    • - Water heating
    • - Anti-freeze system
    • - Pool heating
  36. PV (Photovoltaic)
    • - Device that converts sunlight to electricity
    • - Currently, all commercial PV are silicone-based "p-n junctions"
  37. Types of PV
    • - Single-crystalline: ultra-high purity silicon is "grown" as a single crystal
    • -- expensive, long life, highest efficiency
    • - Amorphous (thin film): silicon is sprayed or deposited on substrate
    • -- cheap
    • -- short life
    • -- low efficiency
    • -- may be "next generation" PV
    • -- used in military
  38. Types of RE systems
    • - Traditional (off grid)
    • -- PV charges batteries
    • -- DC appliances run off DC batteries
    • -- must size to loads, solar resources, and weather
    • - Newer (grid connected)
    • -- DC from PV "inverted" to AC
    • -- AC used or sold to "grid"
    • - PV arrays, Sunny boy inverters
  39. Net metering vs. Green power pricing
    • - Net metering
    • -- bidirectional meter that measures "net" energy flow (consumed +, produced -)
    • -- Utility credits your account, but you're paid the retail rate
    • - Green power pricing
    • -- option to buy green energy
  40. Solar insolation vs. Solar irradiance
    • - Solar insolation: Measure of solar radiation energy received on a given surface area over a given time
    • - Solar irradiance: the measure incident of total amount of solar radiations transmitted to earth's surface in a given unit of time
  41. Silicon PV
    • - How it works:
    • -- Crucial step: electrons freed by photon across the p-n junction by the electric field. this electric field is created by the positive and negative charges resulting from the migration of extra n-material electrons into p-holes
    • - what it's made from: silicon
    • - voltage output: .5,.6 volts
    • - how PV cells are arranged: series or parallel
  42. Hyrdo: Large Scale vs. Micro
    • Large:
    • -Dams and Large Reservoirs
    • -11% us Electricity
    • Micro:
    • -Does not involve Dams & Reservoirs
    • ->~100
  43. Micro Hydro Components
    • -Intake: Where water enters pipe
    • -Penstock: Pipe that carries the water to the turbing. Causes verticel drop to build pressure
    • -PowerHouse: Turbine
    • -Turbine: Converts waters energy to electical energy
    • -Tailrace:Path for spent water to return to stream
  44. Design Needs for Hydro
    • -Large Flow (gallons/minute)
    • -Large Head (Vertical Drop) between intake and power house
    • -Short distance vetweeen intake and power house
    • --Think Water fall
    • --Minimizes penstock length
    • --pipe is not cheap
    • --pipe friction steals energy
  45. Energy Calculations Hydro
    To estimate available power

    • ---Power=headXflow/10
    • *Build in efficiency about 50%
    • Example:
    • Flow of 120 g/m (5 g in 2.5s) and a head of 100ft.
    • ---P=100X120(1/3)=400 Watts
    • Is that a lot?
    • -(.4 kW)(24hrs)(30days/month)=288kWhrs/month
  46. Types  of Turbines
    Reaction
    Impulse
    • Reaction: The runner ( part that receives water) is fully submerged in water
    • --Better for low head;high flow
    • --PowerPal: 200w-1000W models
    • Impulse: the runner is not immersed but rather driven by on or mas jets
    • --Better for High Head Apps
  47. Types of Runners
    • Pelton Wheel
    • Turgo Wheel
    • *Both runner blades are curved to redirect water away from other blades
    • Pelton who knew shelton with a mohawk
    • and turgo was the other  one
  48. Marketing: Turbines and Hydro
    • Harris who know Pelton Shelton
    • --Flow of 4-250 gpm
    • --Head:20-600ft
    • ES&D(Turgo)
    • --Flow of 40-200gpm
    • --Head: 5-200ft
  49. Which countries and States in US are wind industry Leaders
    • States:
    • California: Darrieus' Egg Beater
    • TX=Greatest Number, ND, SD, and Nantucket Bay
    • Country
    • Denmark; WInd on Water;Early Growth Leader
    • Mongolian Desert People
    • China-Current Growth LEader
    • United States-Produces Most
  50. What is the Ridge law
    • Prohibits development on tall ridges
    • Windmill"" are exempted from law but interpretations are unclear'"
  51. Betz's Law
    • Caclulates the mazimum power that can be extracted from the WIND
    • -No turbine can capture more that 59.3 % of wind
  52. Wind Size and APplications
    • -Small:<10kW;Homes Farms and Remote
    • -Intermediate:10-250kW;Village Power-Community Wind
    • Large:660kW-2+MW;Wind Farms
  53. History of WIndmills in Order from First to Last?!?
    • Persia
    • --Vertical Axis;Top View Housing
    • Holland
    • --Horizontal Axis;Post Type
    • Wild Wild WEST
    • -''Prairie Rose''
    • WW1
    • -Nacelle AKA: Small French Boat
  54. Nulear US and World %
    20% Us and 17% World
  55. Top 3 or 4 green house gases
    • Carbon dioxide
    • Methane
    • Nitrous Oxide

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