CH 14 A&P

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alyknight
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217875
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CH 14 A&P
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2013-05-12 12:08:58
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CH 14 A& P
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  1. Rostral
    means toward the nose or forehead
  2. Caudal
    toward the tail or spinal cords
  3. What are the four major parts of the brain?
    • - cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum)
    • - cerebellum
    • - dienchephalon
    • - brainstem
  4. What part of the brain is 83% of the brain's volume?
    cerebrum
  5. What part of the brain contains 50% of the brains neurons?
    cerebellum
  6. The brainstem consists of what 4 parts?
    • - dienchephalon
    • - midbrain
    • - pons
    • - medulla oblongata
  7. What are the major landmarks of the cerebrum?
    • - cerebral hemispheres
    • - longitudinal fissure
    • - gyri
    • - sulci
    • - corpus callosum
  8. What is the longitudinal fissure?
    Deep groove that separates the cerebral hemispheres
  9. What is the corpus callosum?
    Thick nerve bundle at the bottom of the longitudinal fissure that connects the cerebral hemispheres
  10. Gray matter consists of?
    The seat of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and synapses
  11. White matter consists of?
    bundles of axons (myelin)
  12. What are major functions of the cerebrum?
    - sensory and motor control intellectual emotional processing
  13. What are the 3 parts of the diencephalon?
    • - Thalamus
    • - Hypothalamus
    • - Epithalamus
  14. What is the function of the thalamus?
    Thalamic- central processing for sensory and motor impulses and memory
  15. What is the function of the hypothalamus?
    Endocrine and functions for hunger, thirst, temperature, and biorhythms
  16. The lower brainstem consists of what parts?
    • - Midbrain
    • - Pons
    • - Medulla Oblongata
  17. What is the function of the midbrain?
    It is a connection between the higher and lower brain
  18. What is the function of the pons?
    It is a connection between the higher and lower brain with a respiratory function
  19. What is the function of the medulla oblongata?
    It is a connection between the higher and lower brain with heart rate, coughing, vomiting, and blood vessel diameter functions.
  20. What is the brain protected by?
    • - Bone
    • - Meninges
    • - cerebrospinal fluid
  21. If you drive a nail through the skull, in what order would you pass through the connective tissue membranes?
    • - Dura mater
    • - Arachnoid mater
    • - Pia mater
  22. What are the functions of the meninges?
    • - Cover and protect the CNS
    • - Protect blood vessels and enclose venous sinuses
    • - Contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    • - Forms partitions within the skull
  23. What is meningitis? What is it caused by?
    Inflammation of the meninges. Bacterial and virus invasion of the CNS by way of the nose and throat.
  24. What are the symptoms of  meningitis?
    • High fever, stiff neck, drowsiness, and intense headache
    • Diagnosed by examining the CSF for bacteria
  25. What secretes the CSF in each lateral ventricle?
    choroid plexus
  26. What are the three main functions of the CSF?
    • - Buoyancy
    • - Protection
    • - Chemical Stability
  27. What part of the brain has been maintained throughout most of our evolution?
    Hindbrain
  28. What is the most inferior part of the brainstem?
    Medulla Oblongata
  29. What are the four centers that the Medulla Oblongata controls?
    • - Cardiac Center
    • - Vasomotor Center
    • - Respiratory Center
    • - Reflex Center
  30. The pons is responsible for?
    Connecting higher brain centers with the spinal cord. (Anything the body is told has to go through the pons)
  31. The reticular formation in the pons helps with what other functions?
    • -Sleep
    • -Respiration
    • -Posture
  32. Where is the midbrain located?
    Between the diencephalon and the pons
  33. What is the visual reflex center in the midbrain?
    superior colliculi
  34. What is the name of the auditory relay and startle reflex center in the midbrain?
    inferior colliculi
  35. The functional brain stem is composed of?
    Networks of neurons working together and spanning wide areas of the brain

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