PSY 241 Lecture 18

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ralejo
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217908
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PSY 241 Lecture 18
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2013-05-05 19:54:59
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arturo zavala psychobiology drug abuse
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arturo zavala psychobiology drug abuse
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  1. What is a drug?
    Any substance we can take into our body that has the power to change us either functionally or structurally.
  2. What is a psychoactive drug?
    • Drug that affects mental functioning
    • AKA psychotropic/mind-alternating drugs
    • Exert their influence through their actions on the nervous system, particularly the brain and spinal cord
  3. How much do binge-drinkers drink?
    5 or more drinks on the same occassion
  4. How much do heavy drinkers drink?
    2 or more drinks per day
  5. Pharmacokinetics (drug action)
    • Study how a drug moves through the body, including process of:
    • absorption
    • metabolism
    • distribution of tissues
    • elimination
  6. Pharmacodynamics (drug effect)
    Study of the ways in which a drug affects the living organism and the organs of the body
  7. Psychopharmacology
    The study of the effects of drugs on behavior
  8. Oral ingestion
    Administration of drug through mouth

    • Drug dissolves in fluids of mouth, esophagus, or stomach and is carried to the intestines, where it is absorbed into the bloodstream
    • Most common for prescribed drugs
    • Safest route of administration
    • Effect of the drug is highly variable
  9. Peripheral injection
    • Intramuscular (IM) injection: muscle (shoulder, upper arm, thigh, buttocks)
    • Intrperitoneal (IP) injection: abdominal wall
    • Intravenous (IV) injection: vein
    • Subcutaneous (SC) injection: under skin
  10. Central injection
    • Intracerebral injection: into the brain
    • Intraventricular: into cerebral ventricals
  11. Inhalation
    Administration through lungs
  12. Absorption
    Administration by absorption through skin or mucous membranes
  13. Alcohol is broken down by the enzyme _________________________ and this enzyme ~60% more active in men than in women equals a high concentration of alcohol in women.
    Alcohol is broken down by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase and this enzyme ~60% more active in men than in women equals a high concentration of alcohol in women.
  14. Larger individuals have __________________
    • Larger individuals have greater vascular capacity
    • Alcohol is more diluted compared to smaller individuals
  15. Antabuse
    People are "punished" for drinking to stop drinking
  16. Factors that affect distribution of drug
    • Lipid solubility of drug
    • more lipid soluble, better able to cross cell membrane

    • Ability to pass the blood-brain barrier
    • If too large, it cannot pass and it will not produce a psychoactive drug
  17. Half-life
    • The amount of time required for the body t metabolize half the amount of the drug
    • The longer the half-life, the longer the physiological effect
  18. Synaptic Neurotransmission
    • Enzymes synthesize neurotransmitters
    • Vesicle store newly synthesized neurotransmitters (NT)
    • Action potentials arrives and activates voltage-gated Calcium channels and vesicles fuse and release NT
    • NT binds to postsynaptic receptor and produces an effect (EPSP or IPSP or activation of G-protein) - referred to as intrinsic activity
    • NT is taken back up to the presynaptic terminal by reuptake pumps where enzymes breakdown the NT
  19. Ligand
    substance that binds to a receptor
  20. Agonist
    A drug that mimics a neurotransmitter or enhances synaptic neurotransmission
  21. Antagonist
    A drug that blocks a neurotransmitter or inhibits synaptic neurotransmission
  22. Transmitter production
    • Drugs may block:
    • Synthesis enzymes
    • Axonal transport of raw material
    • The ability to store the transmitter
  23. Transmitter release
    • Drugs can block action potentials by:
    • Blocking sodium channels (Na+)
    • Release by blocking calcium (Ca++)
  24. Autoreceptors that monitor amount of release and give feedback can also be affected by drugs
    Activate - ________________________
    Block - _______________________
    • Activate - less neurotransmitter
    • Block - more neurotransmitter
  25. Transmitter clearance
    Drugs called reuptake inhibitors can block reuptake of transmitter, while others allow the transmitter to accumulate by blocking enzymes
  26. Drug effects on transmitter receptors
    • Selective antagonists block postsynaptic receptors from being activated by their neurotransmitter
    • Selective receptor agonists bind to receptors and activate them, mimicking the natural neurotransmitter
  27. Binding affinity (affinity)
    The degree of chemical attraction between a ligand and a receptor
  28. Efficacy (intrinsic activity)
    The ability of a bound ligand to activate the receptor
  29. Dose-response curve (DRC)
    A graph of the relationship between drug doses and the effects
  30. Effects of Repeated Drug Use
    No change

    • Tolerance
    • A decrease in response to a given dose of a drug after repeated treatment
    • A given response (effect) requires a higher dose after repeated administration

    • Sensitization
    • An increase in response to a given dose after repeated administration
    • A given response (effect) requires a lower dose after repeated administration
  31. Neurons ________________ in response to an agonist drug - fewer receptors available
    They _______________ in response to an antagonist
    • Neurons down-regulate in response to an agonist drug - fewer receptors available
    • Decrease of effects

    • They up-regulate in response to an antagonist
    • Increase receptors to counter antagonist
  32. Contingent drug tolerance
    • tolerance only develops to drug effects
    • must experience drug effects in order to develop tolerance
  33. Contingent drug tolerance
    tolerance develops in the environment where the drug is administered
  34. Peak period of use is ...
    18-20
  35. Metabolic
    • Less drug is getting to the site of action due to an increase in the enzymes that break down the drug
    • Ex: alcohol dehydrogenase increases after repeated alcohol resulting in less alcohol getting to the brain
  36. Functional
    • Changes in structure or function at the site of action to compensate for drug
    • Our body is constantly adapting to maintain equilibrium (or balance)

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