PTG 105-Exam 4-ENT 3

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  1. What are the potential causes of presbycusis?
    • Loud noises
    • Changes in blood supply due to heart disease, high BP or diabetes
  2. Describe Otosclerosis:
    Fixation of small bones in the middle ear that conduct sound from the eardrum o the inner ear
  3. What is the cause of Otosclerosis?
    • Familial?
    • Cause not known
  4. What is the treatment for Otosclerosis?
    • Surgery
    • Hearing aids
  5. What are the causes of ENT neoplasia?
    • Sunlight
    • Carcinogens
    • Viruses
  6. What is the most frequent ENT malignancy?
    Squamous cell carcinoma
  7. What are the symptoms of ENT tumors?
    • Mass
    • Obstruct ion
    • Voice change
  8. What cancer makes of 95% of all cancers in the head and neck?
    Squamous cell carcinoma
  9. What is the incidence of Squamous cell carcinoma?
    95% of all head and neck cancers
  10. Is Squamous cell carcinoma aggressive?
  11. What are the common areas for Squamous cell carcinoma?
    • Under tongue
    • Floor of mouth
    • Lower lip
    • Soft palate
    • Gingiva
    • Larynx/pharynx
  12. Where is the most common general site for ENT squamous cell carcinoma?
  13. What is the etiology of squamous cell carcinoma?
    • Smoking
    • Alcohol
    • HPV
    • EBV
    • UV light
    • Hereditary
  14. What are the general symptoms of ENT squamous cell carcinoma?
    • Pain
    • Hoarseness
    • Dysphagia
  15. Describe the appearance of squamous cell carcinoma in early stages?
    • Raised, firm pearly plaques
    • Irregular roughened verrucous mucosal thickening
  16. Describe the appearance of Squamous cell carcinoma in later stages?
    Ulcerated protruding masses with irregular, firm and rolled borders
  17. Where does Squamous cell carcinoma usually metastasize to?
    • Neck lymph nodes
    • Eventually:
    • Distant lymph nodes
    • Anterior chest cavity
  18. What is the prognosis for Squamous cell carcinoma of the ENT?
    Poor <50% survival rate
  19. What is the histological appearance of Squamous cell Carcinoma?
    Keratin pearl formation
  20. What is another term for conjunctivitis?
    Pink eye
  21. What is another term for pink eye?
  22. What is Conjunctivitis?
    Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye or eyelid
  23. What is the term for inflammation of the mucus membrane covering the eye or eyelid?
  24. What are the causes of conjunctivitis?
    • Bacteria
    • Virus
    • Allergic
  25. What are the symptoms of conjunctivitis?
    • Bloodshot, watery eyes
    • Burning scratchy sandy eyes
  26. What is the main symptom of allergic conjunctivitis?
    Itchy eyes
  27. What are the symptoms of infectious conjunctivitis?
    • Burning
    • Scratchy
    • Sandy eyes
  28. What is the treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis?
    Antibiotics drops/ointment
  29. What is the treatment for viral conjunctivitis?
    None, Spontaneous cure
  30. What is the treatment for Allergic conjunctivitis?
    Allergen Avoidance
  31. What causes Keratitis or Corneal ulcers?
    • Bacteria
    • Viruses
    • Protozoa
  32. What protozoon causes Keratitis ad corneal ulcers?
  33. What can Acanthameba cause in the ENT area?
    • Keratitis
    • Corneal Ulcers
  34. What virus is particularly causative of Keratitis ad Corneal ulcers?
    Herpes simplex
  35. What are signs of Viral Keratitis or corneal ulcers?
    • Dendritic ulcers (branching)
    • Blisters on eyelid
Card Set:
PTG 105-Exam 4-ENT 3
2013-05-06 00:38:20
PTG 105 Exam ENT

PTG 105-Exam 4-ENT 3
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