PTG 105-Exam 4-Pancreas I

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kyleannkelsey
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217942
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PTG 105-Exam 4-Pancreas I
Updated:
2013-05-05 20:40:40
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PTG 105 Exam Pancreas
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PTG 105-Exam 4-Pancreas I
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  1. What is the endocrine portion of the pancreas?
    Islets
  2. What is the Exocrine portion of the pancreas?
    Acrini
  3. What is secreted from Islet B cells?
    Insulin
  4. What is secreted from Islet A cells?
    Glucagon
  5. What does Insulin do?
    • Decreases serum glucose
    • Promotes use of glucose and lipid synthesis
  6. What does Glucagon do?
    • Increases serum glucose
    • Promotes utilization of glycogen and lipids
  7. What is diabetes Mellitus?
    Condition of hyperglycemia due to Insulin deficiency or resistance
  8. What is type I diabetes?
    Insulin deficiency
  9. What is Type II diabetes?
    Insulin resistance
  10. What is the mortality rate for Diabetes mellitus?
    35,000 deaths/year
  11. Where does Diabetes rank in % deaths per year?
    7th
  12. How many people are affected by diabetes mellitus per year?
    13 million
  13. What is the most common endocrine disease?
    Diabetes Mellitus
  14. What percent of adults have diabetes mellitus?
    1-2%
  15. Why is diabetes mellitus considered a multi-system disease?
    It affects many parts of the body
  16. What are the key areas of damage due to diabetes mellitus?
    • Stroke
    • Eye damage
    • Kidney damage
    • Impotence
    • Numbness of peripheries
  17. What factors contribute to hyperglycemia?
    • Peripheral insulin resistance
    • Impaired insulin secretion
    • Increased hepatic glucose production
  18. How is Diabetes Mellitus diagnosed?
    • Random blood glucose >200 mg/dL
    • Fasting blood glucose >126 mg/dL on more than one occasion
    • Abnormal glucose tolerance test >200mg/dL 2 hours after load
  19. What is the onset time for Type I diabetes?
    Juvenile onset
  20. What type of diabetes is insulin-dependent?
    Type I
  21. What percent of diabetes mellitus are Type I?
    5-10%
  22. What is the etiology of type I diabetes?
    • Autoimmune destruction of beta cells
    • Idiopathic
  23. What percent of diabetes mellitus are type II?
    80%
  24. What type of diabetes is non-insulin dependant?
    Type II
  25. What type of diabetes is insulin resistant at the tissue level?
    Type II
  26. What ways can diabetes mellitus Type II be treated?
    • Diet
    • Exercise
    • Medication
  27. In what type of diabetes is Ketosis present?
    Type I
  28. The onset of Type I diabetes differs from Type II in what way?
    The onset is more abrupt than in Type II
  29. How old are usual patients with Type II diabetes?
    • Over 30, incidence increases with age
    • Though alarming number in their teens
  30. What may type I diabetes be triggered by?
    • Infection
    • Stress
  31. What cells become particularly insensitive to insulin in Type II diabetes?
    Muscle and fat cells
  32. What is the most common type of diabetes in childhood?
    Type II
  33. The chance of diabetes doubles with what?
    For every 20% increase over body weight
  34. What re the genes associated with Type I Diabetes?
    HLA-linked genes
  35. Other than genes, what creates an insult to the beta cells, causing Type I diabetes?
    • Viral infections
    • Direct pancreatic damage
  36. What is the main effector of type II diabetes?
    Obesity
  37. What type of Diabetes is Beta cell exhaustion?
    Type II
  38. Are their genetic factors for type II diabetes?
    Yes
  39. What are the manifestations of diabetes?
    • Polydipsia
    • Polyuria
    • Polyphagia
    • Tendency toward infection and poor healing
    • Weakness
    • High plasma glucose
    • Increased Hemoglobin A1c
    • Ketoacidosis

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