Card Set Information

2013-05-05 21:27:20

final review for 482
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  1. Utilitarian Tests?
    • Cost Benefit – benefits are assessed
    • according to specific dollar values

    Act– Compare utility of alternatives with respect to a particular

    Rule– Compare utility of alternatives by a specified rule
  2. RP Tests?
    • Rights – Action violate/ infringe upon a
    • person’s rights, granted them as a moral agent?

    Golden Rule – reverse roles of the parties involved

    Self-Defeating – if universalized, would the action become impossible?
  3. 3 tiers of rights?
    1st – Most fundamental rights

    2nd – Rights needed to preserve current state (not being lied to, etc.)

    3rd– Rights needed to advance one’s position
  4. What is the relationship between technology and society?
    Technology affects behaviors and social norms. Can make tasks more efficient but reduce the quality of human interaction, can create opportunities that didn’t use to be possible and connect people that would otherwise be too far apart
  5. What are the
    four kinds of privacy?
    Informational – control info about ourselves

    Physical – ourselves and our property

    • Decisional – ability to make our own
    • decisions

    • Proprietary – ability to control our image,
    • identity, etc.
  6. What are some
    arguments in favor of and opposed to software protection?

    Promote progress of science and arts (utilitarian)

    Respect the “products of creator’s labors” (RP)


    More innovation when software was free (utilitarian)

    Protection tends to increase the price and reduce quality (utilitarian)
  7. What are the
    three attitudes one can take towards technology?
    • Technological determinism – we cannot
    • control technology, so we shouldn’t evaluate its ethicality or the ethicality of its impact

    • Technological optimism – the effects of
    • technology on human well-being are good

    Technological pessimism – Technology can have a negative effect on human well-being
  8. What is the
    democratic dilemma?
    • In a democracy, debates about public policy regarding
    • technology face the democratic dilemma: on one hand, the public must make
    • influencing decisions about science and tech, but on the other, they often do
    • not understand enough about the issues to make good decisions.
  9. What is
    technological determinism?
    • It holds that technological development has a life of
    • its own that cannot be controlled by 
    • individuals or by society; a technology that can be developed will be
    • developed.
  10. What
    is microscopic vision?
    See more acutely, but over a much smaller range
  11. What is
    • Situation in which group comes to agreement
    • at expense of critical thinking

    8 symptoms of groupthink:

    • Illusion of invulnerability of the group to
    • failure

    • Strong “we-feeling” that encourages shared
    • stereotypes

    • Rationalizations that tend to shift
    • responsibilities to others

    • Illusion of morality that assumes inherent
    • group morality, discourages examination

    • Self-censorship to avoid sticking out of
    • the group

    • Illusion of unanimity, construes silence as
    • consent

    • Direct pressure put on those who disagree
    • with group

    • Mindguarding; keeping dissenting views hidden
    • from group
  12. Why can the
    relationship between engineers and managers be so problematic?
    • Differences exist between their backgrounds,
    • expertise, objectives, interests. Obligations of engineers to ethical codes can
    • conflict with duties of managers to protect company
  13. What are the
    three types of organizational cultures? How do they differ?
    • Engineer Oriented – Quality and safety
    • typically are highest priorities. Engineers have large role and are rarely
    • overruled on engineering decisions

    • Customer Oriented – Quality may
    • occasionally suffer to get product out of the door. Engineers and managers
    • advocate different views

    • Finance Oriented – Engineers have “staff”
    • roles and their decisions have far less weight
  14. What is a
    “proper management decision” and what is a “proper engineering decision”?
    • Proper Management – decision should be made
    • by management because it involves factors related to the company’s well-being,
    • and the decision does not force engineers to make unacceptable compromises with
    • their own standards

    • Proper Engineering – decision should be made
    • by engineers because it requires technical expertise or falls within ethical
    • codes
  15. What are the
    three types of organizational disobedience? What does each involve?
    • Contrary Action – doing things contrary to
    • company’s interests

    • Nonparticipation – refusing to carry out an
    • assignment for moral/professional cause

    • Protest – active protest of an organization’s
    • actions/policies
  16. What is the
    key distinction between DeGeorge’s and Davis’ whistleblowing critera?
    • DeGeorge’s criteria are primarily for the purpose of
    • avoiding harm to the public, Davis’ criteria are primarily for allowing the
    • whistleblower to avoid participating in an immoral action
  17. What
    is the difference between anthropocentric ethics and non-anthropocentric
    • Anthropocentrism – nonhuman natural objects
    • including animals have only instrumental value

    • Non-Anthropocentrism – things besides humans
    • hold intrinsic value beyond usefulness
  18. What are three
    attitudes companies tend to adopt towards environmental issues?
    • Subliminal – do as little as possible to
    • meet requirements

    • Minimalist/Compliance – Accept regulations
    • as business expense, have no commitment to env.

    • Progressive – Responsive to the environment
    • has full support of company. Above & beyond
  19. What is the
    history and purpose of the CERES principles?
    • After the Valdez oil spill, several companies adopted
    • the CERES principles, which represent a progressive attitude towards the
    • environment. This attitude focuses on protecting the environment, conserving
    • resources, reducing waste, reducing risk, and informing the public
  20. What is
    • To maintain quality of and prolong the existence of
    • our environment
  21. What
    are the problems and possibilities associated with an international notion of
    • Different cultures have different standards,
    • definitions of professionalism aren’t the same, differences in social roles
  22. What
    tools/standards can we appeal to in international situations? Are any of these
    ultimately unproblematic?
    • Creative Middle Ways – compromise between
    • different ideals

    Golden Rule – what is desirable may differ

    • Universal Human Rights – not every country
    • has resources to provide same rights

    Promotion of Basic Human Well-being

    • Codes of Engineering Societies – different
    • by country

    • Issues may occur in that expectations, laws, regulations,
    • etc. are different country by country.
  23. What
    constitutes exploitation?
    5 conditions:

    • Imbalance of power between dominant and
    • exploited party

    • Exploited party needs resources held by
    • dominant party to protect vital interests

    • Exploitive relationship is only source of
    • the resource for exploited party

    • Dominant party exercises discretionary
    • control over needed resources

    • Resources of subordinate party are used
    • without adequate compensation
  24. What is the
    difference between bribery, extortion, and grease payments?
    • Bribery – paying someone to do something
    • they would not otherwise do

    • Extortion – being forced to pay a fee for
    • something already owed to you

    • Grease payment – offered to facilitate
    • routine bureaucratic decisions or hasten action
  25. How has TI responded
    to the problem of “excessive gifts”?
    • They emphasize that gift giving should not be used in
    • a way that exerts undue pressure to win business or imply a quid pro quo. This
    • ties back to the notion that the moral problem with excessive gifts is the intention
    • to sway behavior.
  26. What is
    Hiring someone because of their family relations
  27. What is
    • When an entity overrides the ability of others to
    • decide what they should do in the interest of those others. Making a decision
    • for someone out of concern (not self-interest)
  28. What
    does Whelchel mean when he says that technology is not neutral?
    • Rather than being neutral, technology embraces values
    • such as objectivity, quantification, efficiency, functionalism, and a focus on
    • utility or usefulness; technology creates a frame in which the world is viewed
    • that excludes qualitative considerations and individual experience. This causes
    • us to see things for their function instead of just what they are
  29. What does
    “enframing” mean?
    • Creating a frame of reference through which the world
    • is viewed; technology can be said to create a frame through which we see
    • objects primarily for their functions instead of beauty
  30. According to
    Whelchel, what values are embedded within technology?
    • Objectivity, quantification, efficiency,
    • functionalism, utility, and usefulness
  31. What ethical
    framework does Vallor use to analyze social networking technologies?
    • Vallor creates a frame of virtues deemed necessary
    • for good social relationships – patience, honesty, and empathy
  32. Which three
    virtues does Vallor analyze?
    Patience honesty and empathy
  33. According to
    Vallor, how can technology harm or hurt each of these virtues?
    • Escape from situations that force us to
    • develop patience

    Ease of misrepresentation hinders honesty

    • Empathy is more effective/genuine through
    • face-face encounters
  34. How
    does the Brundtland Report define sustainability?
    • Sustainable development meets the needs of the
    • present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their
    • own needs
  35. What are the
    three sustainable practices that Boyles and Coates recommend?
    Maintaining the viability of the planet

    • Providing for equity within/between
    • generations

    Solving problems hollistically
  36. What were the thesis and antithesis that Cody offered concerning technology?
    • Thesis: technology offers the opportunity to
    • make good on our deeply held values

    • Antithesis: Technology is single greatest
    • threat to our deeply held values
  37. Which three
    values did he usually analyze to prove these?
    Accessibility, democracy, friendship
  38. What was his
    argument concerning technology’s values?
    • Technology has its own values (not neutral), which
    • promote some of our values, yet undermines other values of ours
  39. Why did he
    invoke the example of the Amish?
    • The Amish have a critical attitude towards
    • technology; they decide whether or not to use a technology based upon how it
    • would affect their values
  40. What is the difference between a trade secret, a copyright, a patent, and a
    • Trade secret – (coca cola formula, etc.)
    • Firm must protect themselves; not in public domain

    • Copyright – rights to creative works;
    • protect expression of idea, not idea itself

    • Patent – Gives exclusive rights for 20
    • years before becoming public domain

    Trademark – symbols associated with goods/services
  41. Why is
    copyrighting problematic for software?
    Someone could make a very slight change and resell it
  42. What is the
    first sale doctrine?
    Individuals may resell legally purchased items
  43. What is an End
    User Licensing Agreement (EULA) and how does it resolve the problem of the
    first sale doctrine and software?
    Sell licenses to users, not the actual software.
  44. What is
    CopyLeft/Open Software, and how does it attempt to resolve the problem of
    copyrighting software?
    • Any modified software must be redistributed with the
    • same distribution policy it had; this prevents someone making small changes and
    • copyrighting the work
  45. What does the
    “free” in “free software” mean?
    Users have the right to modify and edit the software
  46. What
    is employment at will?
    • Employee may choose to resign for any reason at any
    • time/Employer may hire or fire similarly
  47. What is the
    public policy exception to employment at will?
    • If a professional is fired after being asked to do
    • something that violates professional codes, they may have some legal standing
    • to sue for wrongful termination
  48. How has this
    exception come into existence and how recently did it do so?
    • Pierce v Ortho (1980) – decided that one must appeal
    • to professional code of ethics for defense in wrongful termination case
  49. How does Mr. Bovay’s career reflect some dimensions of aspirational ethics?
    • Through his financial generosity to promote the
    • well-being of others
  50. Were there any
    drawbacks to dedicating so much time and effort to his career?
    Gave away a lot of his money…
  51. Does
    Dr. Holtzapple believe that global warming is caused by human activity?
    • Yes; since the 1960’s human factors have become
    • dominant
  52. What evidence
    does he consider to be the “smoking gun” for this argument? 

    [DEFINITELY on test]
    • Beginning
    • around 1960, there is clear evidence to suggest that there is an increase in
    • temperature anomalies due to human activity. This was determined by comparing
    • temperature observations to models of natural effects only and to models of
    • combined natural/human factor
  53. Does Dr.
    Holtzapple believe engineers can play a role in shaping our relation to the
    environment? Has his own career reflected this belief?
    • Yes; he has worked on new fuels that would
    • drastically reduce emissions that contribute to environmental damage
  54. Does Dr.
    Holtzapple believe engineers can play a role in shaping our relation to the
    environment? Has his own career reflected this belief?
    • Yes; he has worked on new fuels that would
    • drastically reduce emissions that contribute to environmental damage
  55. How do the
    “old ethical systems” he discussed differ from the “new ethical systems” he
    • “new systems” would have to incorporate our
    • relationship to the planet and future generations
  56. What
    examples of unsustainable practices did Dr. Autenreith give?
    • Killing big fish populations too fast, planned obsolescence;
    • maximizing individual gain maximizes collective costs
  57. What examples
    did she give of ways engineers can innovate?
    • Smart building design, urban renewal design, novel
    • use of water resources
  58. What is a Life
    Cycle Assessment (LCA)?
    • Comparative tool for gauging global warming potential
    • of multiple products/processes
  59. What are the
    three components of an LCA?
    Inventory of relevant inputs

    • Assessment of potential environmental
    • impacts associated with inputs/outputs

    Interpretation of the results
  60. What are the
    strengths of LCAs?
    • Can assess potential impacts of a process for long
    • term effects
  61. What are the
    weaknesses of LCA?
    • Insufficient data, huge error bars, cannot make
    • decisions for you
  62. What
    is the Easterlin Paradox?
    • Beyond a certain point, wealth and material
    • accumulation do not increase well-being
  63. What is
    Maslow’s Hierarchy?
  64. How might
    Maslow’s Hierarchy explain the Easterland Paradox?
    • Once safety and security have been established,
    • well-being is dependent on the nonmaterial
  65. What are some
    of the subjective measures of well-being?
    • Feelings of happiness, positive mood, life
    • satisfaction
  66. What are some
    of the objective measures of well-being?
    Self-realization, meaning in life, flourishing
  67. What is
    Nussbaum’s and Sen’s capabilities approach?
    • Way of measuring development in less industrialized
    • countries
  68. How might the
    discussion of well-being impact how engineers work in developed countries? 
    How may this
    shape the future of design?
    • Focus on the personal factors that will contribute to
    • greater well-being

    • Establish material improvements to bestow safety and
    • security essential for well-being

    • Focus on the “functionings” that may improve
    • well-being